TABLE 3

Unadjusted and Adjusted Family, School, and Neighborhood Indicators, Adopted and Biological Children in the United States

Family, School, or Neighborhood IndicatorUnadjusted Estimate, % (SE)Estimate Adjusted for DemographicsaEstimate Adjusted for Demographics, Special Health Care Needs
AllAdoptedbBiologicalcAdoptedBiologicalAdoptedBiological
Parent's relationship with child is very close (ages 6–17)85.7 (0.24)81.0 (1.73)d86.0 (0.25)d81.1d86.0d81.9d86.0d
Parent never feels child is much harder to care for than most children69.7 (0.26)58.9 (1.83)d70.2 (0.27)d58.0d70.4d62.2d70.3d
Parent never feels he/she is giving up more than expected to meet the child's needs59.3 (0.28)57.1 (1.79)59.8 (0.29)54.9d60.1d56.660.1
Parent had to make different child care arrangements in past month and/or job change in past year (ages 0–5)33.2 (0.45)34.9 (3.44)33.1 (0.47)37.034.235.734.2
Child is read to daily (ages 0–5)47.8 (0.48)63.6 (3.40)d47.7 (0.50)d60.1d48.0d59.2d48.0d
Child lives in household where someone smokes29.5 (0.26)21.2 (1.57)d29.5 (0.27)d23.7d29.7d23.0d29.7d
Child attends religious service weekly55.7 (0.28)63.7 (1.76)d55.4 (0.29)d64.8d55.3d65.1d55.3d
Mother's physical and emotional health both excellent/very good58.9 (0.29)64.2 (1.82)d58.9 (0.29)d59.359.661.459.5
Child has been home alone during last week (ages 6–11)16.0 (0.35)16.6 (2.67)16.1 (0.36)14.116.513.816.5
Child attends nursery/preschool/kindergarten (ages 3–5)60.7 (0.68)76.4 (3.54)d60.4 (0.70)d68.761.167.961.1
Child participates in activities out of school (ages 6–17)81.0 (0.29)85.3 (1.60)d81.4 (0.30)d81.982.182.682.1
Child has repeated ≥1 grade (ages 6–17)11.3 (0.23)17.3 (1.90)d10.7 (0.23)d19.3d10.6d17.2d10.6d
Neighborhood is supportive81.4 (0.23)85.4 (1.42)d81.4 (0.24)d84.7d81.6d85.4d81.6d
Neighborhood usually/always is safe83.8 (0.23)88.2 (1.51)d83.8 (0.24)d85.984.486.484.4
  • a Estimates were adjusted for demographics, controlling for all significant differences between adopted and biological children found in Table 1.

  • b Adopted children have at least 1 adoptive and 0 biological parents in the household.

  • c Biological children have at least 1 biological and 0 adoptive parents in the household.

  • d Estimates for adopted and biological children significantly differ at the .05 level.

  • Source: NSCH, 2003.