TABLE 1

Demographic Characteristics of Adopted and Biological Children in the United States

Demographic Characteristic% (SE)
All ChildrenAdopted ChildrenaBiological Childrenb
Household
    Income level, % FPLc
        <506.2 (0.18)3.1 (0.72)d6.0 (0.18)d
        50 to <10011.6 (0.22)6.0 (0.96)d11.5 (0.22)d
        100 to <20022.8 (0.26)16.8 (1.50)d22.7 (0.26)d
        200 to <40032.6 (0.26)30.0 (1.71)32.9 (0.27)
        >40026.7 (0.24)44.1 (1.89)d26.9 (0.25)d
    Highest education in household
        Less than high school7.9 (0.19)2.8 (0.59)d7.7 (0.19)d
        High School26.5 (0.26)17.2 (1.45)d26.1 (0.26)d
        More than high school65.7 (0.28)80.0 (1.52)d66.2 (0.29)d
    MSA status
        In MSA, central city31.7 (0.26)28.7 (1.63)31.6 (0.27)
        In MSA, not central city48.5 (0.27)48.9 (1.83)48.8 (0.28)
        Not in MSA19.9 (0.18)22.4 (1.43)19.6 (0.18)
    Primary language spoken in household
        English87.3 (0.22)98.1 (0.68)d87.0 (0.24)d
        Not English12.7 (0.22)1.9 (0.68)d13.0 (0.24)d
    Mean No. of adults in household2.1 (0.00)2.1 (0.03)2.1 (0.01)
    Mean No. of children in household2.4 (0.01)2.3 (0.07)d2.4 (0.01)d
    Mean No. of parents in household1.7 (0.00)1.66 (0.02)d1.73 (0.00)d
Child
    Mean age, y8.6 (0.03)9.3 (0.17)d8.5 (0.03)d
    Gender
        Male51.1 (0.28)48.8 (1.83)51.3 (0.29)
        Female48.9 (0.28)51.3 (1.83)48.7 (0.29)
    Race/ethnicity
        Hispanic17.6 (0.23)11.1 (1.15)d17.8 (0.24)d
        Non-Hispanic white60.7 (0.28)52.1 (1.85)d61.6 (0.29)d
        Non-Hispanic black14.4 (0.21)16.4 (1.42)d13.5 (0.21)d
        Non-Hispanic other7.3 (0.18)20.4 (1.66)d7.1 (0.19)d
    Birth location
        In United States95.2 (0.15)77.3 (1.64)d95.4 (0.15)d
        Out of United States4.8 (0.15)22.7 (1.64)d4.6 (0.15)d
  • FPL indicates federal poverty level; MSA, metropolitan statistical area.

  • a Adopted children have at least 1 adoptive and 0 biological parents in the household

  • b Biological children have at least 1 biological and 0 adoptive parents in the household

  • c FPL was derived from income-to-household size ratio and DHHS federal poverty guidelines.16

  • d Estimates for adopted and biological children significantly differ at the .05 level.

  • Source: NSCH, 2003.