TABLE 2

Baseline Clinical Characteristics of Children Aged 2 to 35 Months Enrolled in a Clinical Trial on the Efficacy of Zinc as Adjuvant Therapy for Severe Pneumonia

CharacteristicZincPlacebo
nValuenValue
Mean duration of cough in days (SD)2994.0 (2.0)2994.2 (2.2)
Mean duration of difficulty breathing in hours (SD)29930.2 (20.2)29929.6 (18.3)
Mean duration of fever in days (SD)2643.5 (2.0)2793.5 (2.1)
Wt for length/height ≤2 z scorea (%)29686 (29.1)29871 (23.8)
Length/height for age ≤2 z scorea (%)29928 (9.4)29922 (7.4)
Mean hemoglobin in g/dL (SD)29911.0 (1.4)29910.9 (1.4)
Mean axillary temperature in °C (SD)29937.7 (0.8)29937.7 (0.9)
Febrileb (%)29946 (15.4)29946 (15.4)
Mean respiratory rate in breaths per minute (SD)
 2–11 mo24564 (12)24865 (12)
 12–35 mo5460 (13)5163 (10)
Mean oxygen saturation (SD)29986 (8)29987 (9)
Oxygen saturation (%)
 <90%299186 (62.2)299187 (62.5)
 <93%299255 (85.3)299249 (83.3)
Wheezing (%)299244 (81.6)299248 (82.9)
Crepitations (%)299273 (91.3)299276 (92.3)
Endpoint consolidation on CR25860 (23.3)26266 (25.2)
Symptoms of severe pneumonia
 Child unable to drink/breastfeed (%)29930 (10.0)29924 (8.0)
 History of convulsions (%)2991 (0.3)2992 (0.7)
 Vomiting everything child eats (%)2949 (3.1)2925 (1.7)
 Child unconscious/lethargic (%)29925 (8.4)29930 (10.0)
Signs of severe pneumonia
 Nasal flaring (%)298116 (38.9)299116 (38.8)
 Grunting (%)29960 (20.1)29971 (23.8)
 Head nodding (%)29965 (21.7)29973 (24.4)
 Central cyanosis (%)2991 (0.3)2992 (0.7)
  • a Derived by using the recent WHO Child Growth Standards.17

  • b Defined as axillary temperature of >38.5°C.