TABLE 3

Joint Effects of Nativity/Immigrant Status With Race/Ethnicity and Household Socioeconomic Status on Breastfeeding Initiation and Duration: The 2003 NSCH

Joint EffectsEver BreastfedNot Ever BreastfeedingBreastfeeding Rate at 6 moNot Breastfeeding for at Least 6 mo
RateSEOdds Ratioa95% Confidence IntervalRateSEOdds Ratioa95% Confidence Interval
Nativity status, race/ethnicity
    Hispanic
        Immigrant parents, foreign-born child85.53.31.00Reference63.15.21.00Reference
        Both immigrant parents, US-born child83.51.51.470.84–2.5844.62.32.851.72–4.71
        1 immigrant parent, US-born child76.92.92.501.36–4.6234.73.54.732.69–8.31
        US-born parents, US-born child71.51.62.381.38–4.1132.31.83.742.26–6.19
    Non-Hispanic white
        1 or both immigrant parentsb88.41.21.340.75–2.4059.02.41.921.15–3.20
        US-born parents, US-born child74.00.52.871.69–4.8639.00.63.632.25–5.86
    Non-Hispanic black
        1 or both immigrant parentsb87.43.31.280.59–2.7847.45.82.941.51–5.69
        US-born parents, US-born child47.91.66.523.81–11.1721.31.46.383.87–10.55
    All other
        Immigrant parents, foreign-born child57.98.86.802.69–17.2131.29.85.592.02–15.49
        Both immigrant parents, US-born child89.52.51.250.60–2.5841.44.93.992.12–7.48
        1 immigrant parent, US-born child88.82.51.220.59–2.5154.15.42.141.09–4.20
        US-born parents, US-born child70.81.92.391.37–4.1737.52.42.901.72–4.90
Nativity status, household education
    Parental education <13 y
        Immigrant parents, foreign-born child90.52.70.990.48–2.0669.75.40.330.18–0.59
        Both immigrant parents, US-born child82.11.82.431.58–3.7243.92.61.210.87–1.71
        1 immigrant parent, US-born child77.73.12.881.76–4.7335.24.51.721.08–2.74
        US-born parents, US-born child53.51.05.413.80–7.7120.70.92.591.93–3.46
    Parental education ≥13 y
        Immigrant parents, foreign-born child66.44.45.073.09–8.3441.65.31.330.81–2.17
        Both immigrant parents, US-born child90.61.41.00Reference49.63.01.00Reference
        1 immigrant parent, US-born child86.51.51.490.97–2.2850.92.30.950.70–1.30
        US-born parents, US-born child77.20.52.371.68–3.3442.50.61.210.92–1.59
Nativity status, household poverty status
    Below poverty level
        Immigrant parents, foreign-born child87.84.71.540.55–4.3063.67.40.410.19–0.92
        Both immigrant parents, US-born child83.72.22.801.44–5.4344.23.61.300.77–2.22
        1 immigrant parent, US-born child73.65.84.411.94–10.0640.17.41.420.68–2.98
        US-born parents, US-born child54.81.55.803.23–10.4422.81.42.121.33–3.38
    100%–200% of poverty level
        Immigrant parents, foreign-born child85.74.82.050.82–5.1436.99.91.630.61–4.33
        Both immigrant parents, US-born child82.22.93.121.55–6.2546.73.61.190.70–2.02
        1 immigrant parent, US-born child83.82.72.341.16–4.7142.34.91.370.76–2.47
        US-born parents, US-born child63.51.25.052.82–9.0230.11.21.841.17–2.89
    200% to 400% of poverty level
        Immigrant parents, foreign-born child64.88.88.563.38–21.6851.710.81.080.41–2.89
        Both immigrant parents, US-born child86.83.11.920.87–4.2044.04.91.360.76–2.43
        1 immigrant parent, US-born child81.92.92.881.44–5.7445.83.71.290.77–2.18
        US-born parents, US-born child73.60.73.862.17–6.8838.70.91.551.00–2.42
    ≥400% of poverty level
        Immigrant parents, foreign-born child42.76.620.229.48–43.1132.96.72.481.23–5.03
        Both immigrant parents, US-born child93.61.71.00Reference53.34.91.00Reference
        1 immigrant parent, US-born child90.91.51.350.68–2.6752.23.31.040.63–1.71
        US-born parents, US-born child80.90.72.971.67–5.2945.61.01.350.87–2.09
  • a Adjusted for gender, birth order, race/ethnicity, household composition, place of residence, household poverty status, neighborhood safety, familial support, maternal physical and emotional health, maternal exercise, and household smoking status.

  • b This is the overall immigrant category consisting of children born to 1 or both foreign-born parents.