TABLE 2

Duration-Specific Adjusted Odds of Not Breastfeeding According to Selected Demographic, Socioeconomic, and Behavioral Characteristics: The 2003 NSCH

CharacteristicNot Ever BreastfeedingNot for At Least 6 moNot for At Least 12 mo
Odds Ratioa,b95% Confidence IntervalOdds Ratioa,b95% Confidence IntervalOdds Ratioa,b95% Confidence Interval
Gender
    Male1.00Reference1.00Reference1.00Reference
    Female1.020.93–1.110.940.87–1.030.840.76–0.94
    Unknown1.160.23–5.791.160.29–4.551.210.22–6.78
Birth order
    11.00Reference1.00Reference1.00Reference
    ≥21.060.98–1.150.880.82–0.960.920.83–1.03
Race/ethnicity
    Non-Hispanic White1.00Reference1.00Reference1.00Reference
    Non-Hispanic Black2.191.91–2.511.741.47–2.062.331.78–3.06
    Hispanic0.920.80–1.071.130.97–1.311.130.93–1.37
    Non-Hispanic mixed race1.010.82–1.250.970.78–1.190.940.73–1.22
    Other0.880.68–1.121.100.82–1.481.140.77–1.66
Nativity/immigrant status
    Immigrant parents, foreign-born child1.721.18–2.510.680.46–1.010.630.41–0.96
    Both immigrant parents, US-born child1.00Reference1.00Reference1.00Reference
    1 immigrant parent, US-born child1.200.90–1.611.100.86–1.400.940.71–1.25
    US-born parents, US-born child2.031.63–2.541.431.17–1.761.321.02–1.72
Household composition
    2 parents, biological1.00Reference1.00Reference1.00Reference
    2 parents, step family1.811.41–2.321.751.32–2.321.801.21–2.68
    Single mother1.331.18–1.501.461.27–1.681.541.27–1.89
    Other family type3.221.52–6.841.280.71–2.300.920.49–1.76
    Unknown5.442.34–12.663.241.60–6.563.551.53–8.25
Place of residence
    Metropolitan1.00Reference1.00Reference1.00Reference
    Nonmetropolitan1.411.28–1.551.411.27–1.561.371.19–1.59
    Unknown1.010.92–1.110.980.90–1.071.010.90–1.12
Highest parental education level, y
    <121.791.47–2.191.341.08–1.680.980.75–1.28
    122.272.05–2.522.041.81–2.291.711.45–2.00
    ≥131.00Reference1.00Reference1.00Reference
    Unknown1.670.93–3.010.980.59–1.631.250.61–2.54
Household poverty status (ratio of family income to poverty threshold)
    <100%1.871.60–2.181.411.20–1.660.970.78–1.21
    100%–200%1.681.47–1.911.331.17–1.520.890.75–1.06
    200%–400%1.321.18–1.481.151.04–1.280.940.82–1.08
    ≥400%1.00Reference1.00Reference1.00Reference
    Unknown1.381.17–1.631.120.95–1.330.880.71–1.10
Neighborhood safety
    Safe1.00Reference1.00Reference1.00Reference
    Unsafe1.080.95–1.230.930.82–1.071.000.83–1.19
    Unknown0.810.52–1.260.670.41–1.100.700.38–1.31
Familial or social support
    0 (low)1.591.20–2.122.261.60–3.211.691.05–2.73
    11.461.20–1.771.511.21–1.881.431.04–1.95
    21.321.13–1.531.431.23–1.681.531.23–1.89
    31.271.11–1.461.421.24–1.621.251.05–1.49
    4–61.251.12–1.401.191.07–1.331.120.98–1.29
    ≥7 (high)1.00Reference1.00Reference1.00Reference
    Unknown1.000.45–2.250.940.38–2.321.120.45–2.80
Maternal physical health status
    Excellent/very good/good1.00Reference1.00Reference1.00Reference
    Fair/poor0.990.82–1.190.990.80–1.220.880.65–1.18
    Unknown0.080.02–0.340.560.18–1.690.260.09–0.78
Maternal emotional health status
    Excellent/very good/good1.00Reference1.00Reference1.00Reference
    Fair/poor1.020.82–1.260.930.73–1.190.820.60–1.13
    Unknown5.841.69–20.191.180.41–3.421.920.66–5.60
Maternal exercise
    Physically active1.00Reference1.00Reference1.00Reference
    Physically inactive1.060.97–1.161.141.04–1.241.070.95–1.20
    Unknown1.340.60–3.001.650.90–3.022.441.23–4.85
Household smoking status
    Smoker1.741.54–1.952.081.83–2.371.901.57–2.30
    Nonsmoker1.00Reference1.00Reference1.00Reference
    Unknown1.121.02–1.231.191.08–1.301.080.96–1.21
  • a Adjusted for gender, birth order, race/ethnicity, immigrant status, household composition, place of residence, household poverty status, neighborhood safety, familial support, maternal physical and emotional health, maternal exercise, and household smoking.

  • b In estimating the adjusted effects, either parental education or poverty status was used to avoid the problem of colinearity.