TABLE 1

US Breastfeeding Initiation (Ever) and Duration Rates According to Selected Demographic, Socioeconomic, and Behavioral Characteristics: The 2003 NSCH

CharacteristicEver-Breastfeeding RateRate at 3 moRate at 6 moRate at 12 mo
Sample Size (Unweighted)%SE%SE%SE%SE
Total population33 12172.30.452.00.537.60.516.10.4
Gender
    Male16 97072.60.651.10.737.00.715.00.5
    Female16 13772.10.652.90.738.20.717.20.6
    Unknown1475.913.969.716.041.816.617.213.4
Birth order
    118 66573.70.551.40.636.50.615.50.5
    ≥214 45671.50.652.40.738.20.716.40.5
Race/ethnicity
    Non-Hispanic white21 58774.90.553.70.640.20.617.40.5
    Non-Hispanic black282151.41.534.51.523.41.47.10.8
    Hispanic541877.31.057.01.338.81.317.91.0
    Non-Hispanic mixed race151572.62.153.12.538.22.417.61.8
    Other178076.81.958.42.739.82.816.52.1
        American Indiana34260.64.540.74.431.64.216.13.4
        Asiana24388.83.371.45.939.27.013.44.4
        Hawaiian/Pacific Islandera12773.15.647.15.837.75.423.64.6
Nativity/immigrant status
    Immigrant parents, foreign-born child64276.02.963.13.852.84.227.53.7
    Both immigrant parents, US-born child235085.51.266.51.846.21.920.71.5
    1 immigrant parent, US-born child206484.21.462.52.046.72.122.41.7
    US-born parents, US-born child28 06569.60.549.10.535.40.514.70.4
Household composition
    2 parents, biological24 92677.50.457.00.642.20.618.40.5
    2 parents, stepfamily76057.03.032.92.723.42.39.21.6
    Single mother587960.61.141.01.226.31.110.20.8
    Other family type100055.42.740.82.930.82.814.42.2
    Unknown55643.23.625.73.215.72.84.41.3
Place of residence
    Metropolitan17 18674.00.554.00.639.20.616.80.5
    Nonmetropolitan588863.50.941.31.028.80.912.20.7
    Unknown10 04774.80.755.30.840.60.817.20.6
Highest parental education level, y
    <12175668.91.849.92.135.02.117.81.7
    12668557.91.037.21.123.80.99.90.7
    ≥1324 48878.50.458.30.643.50.618.40.5
    Unknown19272.75.857.36.343.46.416.04.6
Household poverty status (ratio of family income to poverty threshold)
    <100%440262.11.243.61.428.91.312.91.0
    100%–200%653567.41.045.91.232.91.115.60.8
    200%–400%10 29074.70.753.50.939.50.916.90.7
    ≥400%875782.10.662.60.946.50.918.00.7
    Unknown313772.51.352.81.738.11.616.41.3
Neighborhood safety
    Safe28 05573.40.452.80.538.10.516.40.4
    Unsafe457568.01.249.11.435.31.314.91.0
    Unknown49166.14.045.94.434.84.313.93.4
Familial or social supportb
    0 (low)81561.42.933.43.121.42.810.22.2
    1180567.21.945.72.231.92.113.51.7
    2400969.21.248.01.532.81.412.61.0
    3596770.51.049.01.233.81.215.10.9
    4–612 20373.00.753.60.839.30.817.00.6
    ≥7 (high)822777.20.858.21.044.01.018.90.8
    Unknown9573.66.556.28.540.49.115.56.0
Maternal physical health status
    Excellent/very good/good29 85773.70.453.20.538.60.516.40.4
    Fair/poor183166.91.847.72.132.62.115.91.8
    Unknown143352.42.335.02.324.72.110.31.4
Maternal emotional health status
    Excellent/very good/good30 34973.70.453.30.538.50.516.40.4
    Fair/poor131965.92.245.82.433.02.416.42.0
    Unknown145350.62.434.12.324.62.19.71.4
Maternal exercise
    Physically active17 90674.70.655.00.740.60.717.20.5
    Physically inactive13 63271.80.750.40.835.40.815.50.6
    Unknown158351.92.234.52.224.42.09.51.3
Household smoking status
    Smoker550560.61.138.01.123.91.09.80.8
    Nonsmoker14 89776.60.657.40.742.90.818.20.6
    Unknown12 71972.30.751.70.837.20.816.40.6
  • a American Indian/Alaska Native ethnicity was available for children in Alaska, New Mexico, North Dakota, Oklahoma, and South Dakota only. Asian ethnicity was available for children in California, New Jersey, New York, and Washington; Hawaiian/Pacific Islander ethnicity was available for children in Hawaii only.

  • b This is based on the question, “During the past week, how many times did you or any family member take the child on any kind of outing, such as to the park, library, zoo, shopping, church, restaurants, or family gatherings?”