TABLE 1

Characteristics of Children With and Without Reported Inadequate Sleep According to Age Group

VariableAge 6 to 11 y (N = 23 764 177)Age 12 to 17 y (N = 23 641 346)
Inadequate Sleep (N = 5 828 973 [24.5%])Adequate Sleep (N = 17 935 204 [75.5%])Inadequate Sleep (N = 9 302 085 [39.3%])Adequate Sleep (N = 14 339 261 [60.7%])
Demographic characteristics
    Gender
        Male51.351.150.151.2
        Female (reference)48.748.949.948.8
    Race/ethnicity
        Non-Hispanic white (reference)63.359.669.860.4
        Non-Hispanic black14.914.312.9a16.3
        Hispanic15.3a18.011.3a16.4
        Other/mixed race6.2a8.05.9a6.7
    Family education level
        Less than high school7.77.94.7a8.0
        High school graduate23.5a27.022.6a30.1
        More than high school (reference)68.865.172.761.8
    Income as % PL
        <100% PL14.3a16.110.9a16.1
        100%–199% PL19.7a21.218.0a20.9
        200%–399% PL31.330.332.3a29.3
        ≥400% PL (reference)26.322.829.722.8
        PL missing8.49.69.011.0
Child health
    Health status
        Excellent (reference)57.362.156.359.1
        Very good, good38.4b34.940.3b37.2
        Fair, poor4.3b3.03.43.6
    Comorbid conditions
        Depression/anxiety5.3b2.98.0b6.6
        Behavioral/conduct problem8.7b5.36.56.3
        Developmental delay or physical impairment3.73.83.23.4
        Atopic conditionc32.4b29.133.6b27.4
        Frequent or severe headache5.9b4.410.4b7.9
        Learning disability11.2b9.312.2a13.8
        ADD/ADHD9.6b7.110.19.5
    Reported child behaviors
        Depressive symptomsd
            Never (reference)11.419.712.220.5
            Sometimes73.0b69.872.6b66.8
            Usually, always15.6b10.515.2b12.7
        Overweight27.528.311.5a13.4
School and activities
    Having problems at school
        Never (reference)65.072.867.670.7
        Parents contacted35.0b27.232.4b29.3
    Bullied by classmates
        Not at all (reference)56.361.569.669.1
        A little28.7b23.419.6b17.4
        A lot15.015.210.8a13.5
    Days of physical exercise (≥20 min/d)         during past week15.6
        None7.0b6.915.5b
        1–5 d62.6b55.161.3b56.0
        6–7 days (reference)30.438.023.228.4
    Television/video time per d
        ≤2 h (reference)55.257.656.352.4
        >2 h44.8b42.443.7a47.6
Family life
    Family structure
        2 parents, biological/adopted (reference)63.561.757.353.8
        2-parent stepfamily9.110.212.2a13.8
        Single mother23.923.126.126.0
        Other3.5a5.04.4a6.4
    Total children in household
        1 (reference)14.814.228.625.6
        239.440.737.3a36.9
        ≥345.945.234.1a37.5
    Parental health
        Mother's general health
            Excellent (reference)29.235.027.831.5
            Very good, good59.0b55.759.8b55.9
            Fair, poor11.8b9.312.412.6
        Mother's emotional health
            Excellent (reference)28.338.529.237.1
            Very good, good63.1b56.062.1b55.7
            Fair, poor8.6b5.58.7b7.2
        Father's general health
            Excellent (reference)30.737.928.632.7
            Very good, good62.2b56.463.0b58.7
            Fair, poor7.1b5.78.48.6
        Father's emotional health
            Excellent (reference)34.145.234.041.9
            Very good, good62.0b51.561.2b53.8
            Fair, poor3.9b3.34.8b4.3
    Family stress
        Child harder to care for
            Never (reference)64.473.164.569.9
            Sometimes28.7b21.528.2b23.5
            Usually, always6.9b5.47.3b6.7
        Argue heatedly or shout
            Never (reference)17.627.016.623.8
            Rarely34.6b33.933.5b34.0
            Sometimes, usually, always47.8b39.249.9b42.3
        Hitting/throwing things during family disagreements84.590.286.590.2
            Never (reference)11.5b6.810.1b6.9
                Rarely4.03.03.42.9
            Sometimes, usually, always
        Parental anger with child
                Never (reference)15.923.917.425.1
                Sometimes80.7b73.877.5b71.7
                Usually, always3.4b2.35.1b3.2
        Environmental safetye
            Always (reference)33.341.926.535.1
            Usually52.3b43.759.6b47.8
            Sometimes, never14.4b14.413.917.1
  • a Significantly associated with lesser impaired sleep, relative to reference category, in bivariate analysis.

  • b Significantly associated with greater impaired sleep, relative to reference category, in bivariate analysis.

  • c Respondent report of ≥1 of the following conditions: asthma, hay fever or respiratory allergy, eczema or skin allergy.

  • d Respondent report of ≥1 of the following during the past month: child feels worthless or inferior, unhappy, sad or depressed, stubborn, sullen or irritable, or withdrawn.

  • e Respondent report of ≥1 of the following areas of concern for child's safety: at school, neighborhood, or home.