TABLE 3

Swimming Infant Practice, Respiratory Symptoms, and Risks of Asthma and Recurrent Bronchitis Later During Childhood

Frequency, n (%)OR (95% CI)P
Swimming Infants (N = 43)Other Children (N = 298)CrudeAdjusted
Wheezing6 (14.0)26 (8.7)1.7 (0.7–4.4)1.5 (0.5–4.1)a.48
Chest tightness6 (14.0)13 (4.4)3.6 (1.3–9.9)3.8 (1.2–12.1)b.03
Shortness of breath6 (14.0)18 (6.0)2.5 (0.9–6.8)2.4 (0.8–7.3)c.11
Cough11 (25.6)51 (17.1)1.7 (0.8–3.5)1.8 (0.8–3.8)d.13
Doctor-diagnosed asthma7 (16.3)23 (7.7)2.3 (0.9–5.8)2.2 (0.77–6.5)e.10
Exercise-induced asthma (EIB)4 (9.3)11 (3.7)2.7 (0.8–8.8)4.3 (1.1–17.2)f.049
Doctor-diagnosed asthma and/or EIB10 (23.3)33 (11.1)2.4 (1.1–5.4)3.0 (1.3–7.4)g.01
Recurrent bronchitis26 (60.5)110 (36.9)2.6 (1.4–5.8)2.6 (1.3–5.1)h.006
  • a Adjusted for age, gender, atopy (IgE > 100 IU/mL), maternal smoking during pregnancy, and parental hay fever.

  • b Adjusted for BMI, sibling status, parental asthma, mold on the wall of room, and sport practice other than swimming.

  • c Adjusted for BMI, sibling status, maternal smoking during pregnancy, and parental asthma.

  • d Adjusted for breastfeeding.

  • e Adjusted for gender, parental asthma, aeroallergen-specific IgE, exposure to pets, number of siblings, and backyard pool.

  • f Adjusted for age, parental asthma, parental smoking at home and aeroallergens specific IgE.

  • g Adjusted for age, parental asthma; and aeroallergens specific IgE in serum.

  • h Adjusted for birth weight, day care attendance, house with double-gazed windows, and use of chlorine bleach for house cleaning.