TABLE 2

Associations Between Perinatal Factors HM and Associations Between Perinatal Factors and ROP

CharacteristicNo HM (N = 353)HM (N = 976)PNo ROP/ROP No Surgery (N = 894)ROP With Surgery (N = 163)P
Prenatal care8395<.019391.33
Antenatal steroids7284<.018374.01
Labor6867.736377<.01
Maternal hypertension2526.773014<.01
Vaginal delivery3640.143646.01
Duration of rupture of membranes, h28 (76)46 (148).0443 (140)31 (112).32
Maternal education
    Less than high school3427<.012829.11
    High school42283325
    More than high school23453946
Male gender4847.714450.16
Ethnicity
    Black6439<.014640.05
    White27423937
    Other9191523
Gestational age, wk26.2 (2)26.0 (2).1326.4 (2)24.7 (1.2)<.01
Outborn76.56610.04
5-min Apgar score of <62320.411831<.01
Multiple birth2022.632217.13
Birth weight, g783 (140)775 (134).35801 (126)695 (119)<.01
FGR-10a1.2 (0.2)1.2 (0.2).251.2 (0.2)1.3 (0.2)<.01
Respiratory distress syndrome9796.4096100<.01
Pneumothorax69.09414<.01
Treatment for early onset sepsisb5450.094666<.01
Day of first feeding7.7 (6.7)7.8 (6.8).726.8 (5.6)11.7 (9.2)<.01
  • Data are column percentages (ie, percentages of infants with and without HM intake, or with and without ROP treated surgically who had the listed attribute) or the mean (SD) for infant with the attribute. P values are for a χ2 test of the association between the attribute and either HM intake or severe ROP treated surgically.

  • a FGR-10 indicates birth weight/10th percentile of birth weight for gestational age according to gender (using growth curves by Alexander et a124).

  • b Suspected or confirmed: defined as treatment with antibiotics for at least 5 days, beginning in the first 72 hours after birth.