Prevalence of Probable PTSD and Childhood Abuse by Childhood Gender Nonconformity, Growing Up Today Study I (n = 9489)a

Childhood Gender Nonconformity
Below Median (n = 4895), %Above Median but Below Highest Decile (n = 3211), %Highest Decile (n = 1383), %
Probable PTSD (lifetime)
Psychological abuse before age 11 y
Psychological abuse ages 11–17 y
Physical abuse before age 11 y
Physical abuse ages 11–17 y
Sexual abuse before age 11 y
Sexual abuse ages 11–17 y
Any physical abuse
Any psychological abuse
Any sexual abuse
Any abuse
  • a Ns for some rows are smaller because of missing responses.

  • Two-sided Wald χ2 test of significance,

  • * P < .05,

  • ** P < .01,

  • *** P < .001.