Childhood Gender Nonconformity as Predictor of Childhood Abuse before Age 18 y, Growing Up Today Study I (n = 9280)a

Gender nonconformityAny Childhood Physical AbuseAny Childhood Psychological AbuseAny Childhood Sexual Abuse, MenbAny Childhood Sexual Abuse, Womenb
Below median1.0 (Reference)1.0 (Reference)1.0 (Reference)1.0 (Reference)
Above median, below top decile1.1 (1.0–1.2)1.1 (1.0–1.2)1.3 (0.9–1.9)1.2 (1.0–1.4)*
Top decile1.4 (1.3–1.6)***1.4 (1.2–1.5)***2.8 (1.9–4.1)***1.6 (1.3–1.8)***
  • Data are RR (95% CI).

  • a All models adjusted for age at questionnaire return, sex, and race.

  • b Models for sexual abuse are presented separately by sex because the sex-by-gender-nonconformity interaction term was statistically significant for sexual abuse. For physical abuse and psychological abuse, the sex-by-gender-nonconformity was not statistically significant, therefore RR estimates apply to both sexes.

  • Two-sided Wald χ2 significant at

  • * P < .05,

  • *** P < .001.