Methodologic Characteristics of Included Studies

(RCT/CT/ Cluster CT)Randomization Concealment
(Yes, No, NR)Blinding of Observers
(Yes, No, NR)Biochemical validation of outcome data
(Yes/No)) Follow-up, %Participants Received Full Intervention
(%, NR)
Abdullah et al18 (2005)952RCTYesYesYes88NR
Chan et al19 (2005)80RCTYesYesNo96NR
Curry et al20 (2003)303RCTYesNRYes81NR
Eriksen et al21 (1996)443RCTYesNRNo82NR
Greenberg et al22(1994)933RCTNRYesNo7196
Hovell et al23 (2002)204RCTYesYesYes9798
Hovell et al24 (2009)150RCTYesYesNo8754
Hughes et al25 (1991)95Quasi-RCTNoNRNo94NR
Kallio et al26 (2006)1062RCTNoNoNo61NR
Krieger et al27 (2005)274RCTYesNoNo78NR
Ralston and Roohi28 (2008)42RCTNoNRNo67NR
Severson et al29 (1997)2901Cluster RCTNoNoNo69NR
Vineis et al30 (1993)1015CTNoNRNo82NR
Wahlgren et al31 (1997)91RCTNoNRNo87NR
Wilson et al32 (2011) 519RCTYesYesNo95NR
Woodward et al13 (1987)184Quasi-RCTNoNRYes85NR
Yilmaz et al33 (2006)375RCTYesYesNo97NR
Zakarian et al34 (2004)150RCTNoYesYes85.372
  • NR, not reported.