TABLE 1

Etiologies and Treatment of Index AIS and Recurrent Strokes Among 181 Children With Perinatal and Later Childhood Strokes

Perinatal Stroke, n/N (%)Later Childhood Stroke, n/N (%)
IndexRecurrenceIndexRecurrence
Etiology
    Idiopathic65/84 (77)0/1 (0)a26/97 (27)1/15 (7)a
    Primary vasculopathyb5/84 (6)0/1 (0)a23/97 (24)12/15 (80)a
    Infection7/84 (8)1/1 (100)a22/97 (23)1/15 (7)a
    Cardiac0/84 (0)0/1 (0)a12/97 (12)1/15 (7)a
    Hypercoaguable state4/84 (5)0/1 (0)a7/97 (7)0/15 (0)a
    Otherc3/84 (4)0/1 (0)a7/97 (7)0/15 (0)a
Treatment
    Aspirin2/83 (2)0/2 (0)d32/97 (33)3/32 (9)d
    Anticoagulation0/83 (0)0/0 (0)d11/97 (11)3/11 (27)d
    Both0/83 (0)0/0 (0)d6/97 (6)0/6 (0)d
    Neither81/83 (98)1/81 (1)d46/97 (49)9/48 (19)d
  • a Distribution of etiologies among 1 neonate and 15 older children with recurrent strokes.

  • b Includes 2 patients with sickle cell disease (1 of whom had a recurrent stroke) and 4 children with systemic lupus erythematosis (2 of whom had recurrent strokes).

  • c Perinatal: in utero cocaine or amphetamine exposure (n = 8); later childhood: leukemia (n = 8), trauma (n = 4).

  • d Recurrences among neonates and older children, stratified by treatment after index stroke.