TABLE 3

Adjunctive and Antiviral Treatments Received in the PICU and Survival (N = 838)

Parametern (%)RR Death (95% CI)P
Mechanical ventilation
    Via invasive route only259 (30.9)4.0 (2.5–6.2)<.0001
    Noninvasive ventilation only136 (16.2)0.4 (0.2–0.9).02
    Both endotracheal and noninvasive ventilation169 (20.2)1.6 (1.0–2.6).04
    High-frequency ventilation115 (13.7)8.4 (5.6–12.8)<.0001
Inhaled nitric oxide76 (9.1)7.5 (5.0–11.0)<.0001
Prone positioning33 (3.9)3.8 (2.1–6.6)<.0001
Vasopressors for shocka
    At time of PICU admission90 (10.7)4.4 (2.9–6.7)<.0001
    During PICU course162 (19.3)7.9 (5.0–12.3)<.0001
Dialysis44 (5.3)4.5 (2.8–7.3)<.0001
ECMO33 (3.9)8.9 (6.1–12.9)<.0001
High-dose corticosteroidsb262 (31.3)3.5 (2.2–5.4)<.0001
Fresh-frozen plasma75 (9.0)6.8 (4.6–10.1)<.0001
Intravenous immunoglobulin26 (3.1)3.7 (2.0–6.9)<.0001
Influenza antiviral medications
    Oseltamivir751 (89.6)0.8 (0.4–1.4)NS
    Peramivirc21 (2.5)6.0 (3.6–9.9)<.0001
    Zanamivir12 (1.4)0.9 (0.1–6.2)NS
    Amantadine17 (2.0)0.7 (0.1–4.4)NS
    Ribavirin5 (0.6)2.3 (0.4–13.2)NS
    Rimantadine (none died)5 (0.6)NS
  • NS indicates not significant.

  • a Vasopressors indicates intravenous dopamine >5 μg/kg per minute or any norepinephrine, epinephrine, or phenylephrine.

  • b Greater than or equal to 2 mg/kg per d methylprednisolone or prednisone or stress-dose hydrocortisone at any time excluding for airway edema around extubation.

  • c Median timing of initiation of peramivir was on PICU day 5 (IQR: 3.5–7.0).