TABLE 6

Prediction of Child Internalizing Symptoms at School Age (4–5 to 8–9 Years)

Potential PredictorsUnadjusted ResultsaAdjusted Results (N = 2179)b
Coefficient (95% CI)PCoefficient (95% CI)P
Family
    Mother's age−0.25 (−0.40 to −0.10)<.001−0.10 (−0.25 to 0.05).18
    Mother completed high school−0.25 (−0.38 to −0.11)<.001−0.05 (−0.21 to 0.12).57
    Mother's main language not English0.38 (0.15 to 0.60)<.001−0.09 (−0.34 to 0.16).49
    Sole parent in home at 4–5 y0.65 (0.42 to 0.88)<.0010.32 (−0.09 to 0.73).13
    Sole parent in home at 6–7 y0.63 (0.41 to 0.85)<.001−0.31 (−0.73 to 0.12).15
    Sole parent in home at 8–9 y0.64 (0.42 to 0.86)<.0010.26 (−0.05 to 0.57).10
    Stepparent in home at 4–5 y0.28 (−0.14 to 0.69).19
    Stepparent in home at 6–7 y0.22 (−0.17 to 0.61).27
    Stepparent in home at 8–9 y0.13 (−0.20 to 0.47).43
    Family socioeconomic advantage at 4–5 y−0.49 (−0.63 to −0.35)<.0010.12 (−0.30 to 0.54).56
    Family socioeconomic advantage at 6–7 y−0.56 (−0.71 to −0.42)<.0010.10 (−0.35 to 0.55).67
    Family socioeconomic advantage at 8–9 y−0.54 (−0.69 to −0.40)<.001−0.19 (−0.60 to 0.21).35
Child
    Male−0.03 (−0.16 to 0.11).69
    Indigenous0.59 (0.11 to 1.08).020.02 (−0.47 to 0.51).94
    Physical health at 4–5 y−0.72 (−0.87 to −0.57)<.001−0.13 (−0.35 to 0.08).21
    Physical health at 6–7 y−0.88 (−1.03 to −0.72)<.001−0.20 (−0.43 to 0.03).09
    Physical health at 8–9 y−1.09 (−1.24 to −0.93)<.001−0.79 (−1.01 to −0.57)<.001
    Language at 4–5 y−0.29 (−0.44 to −0.14)<.0010.08 (−0.07 to 0.23).31
    Language at 6–7 y−0.29 (−0.43 to −0.14)<.0010.03 (−0.14 to 0.20).71
    Language at 8–9 y−0.40 (−0.54 to −0.26)<.001−0.29 (−0.46 to −0.13)<.001
    Has sibling−0.21 (−0.41 to −0.02).03−0.25 (−0.48 to −0.02).03
Parenting practices
    Warmth at 4–5 y−0.13 (−0.26 to −0.01).040.10 (−0.07 to 0.28).26
    Warmth at 6–7 y−0.18 (−0.32 to −0.04).010.01 (−0.17 to 0.19).90
    Warmth at 8–9 y−0.34 (−0.50 to −0.19)<.0010.07 (−0.12 to 0.27).46
    Harsh discipline at 4–5 y0.40 (0.26 to 0.54)<.001−0.07 (−0.25 to 0.10).40
    Harsh discipline at 6–7 y0.75 (0.61 to 0.89)<.0010.15 (−0.04 to 0.35).13
    Harsh discipline at 8–9 y0.83 (0.67 to 0.99)<.0010.37 (0.17 to 0.57)<.001
    Overinvolved/protective at 6–7 y0.13 (−0.03 to 0.30).11
    Overinvolved/protective at 8–9 y0.38 (0.22 to 0.53)<.0010.14 (−0.02 to 0.30).08
    Inductive reasoning at 4–5 y−0.08 (−0.21 to 0.04).20
    Inductive reasoning at 6–7 y0.12 (−0.01 to 0.26).07
    Inductive reasoning at 8–9 y0.02 (−0.12 to 0.16).78
    Inconsistent discipline at 4–5 y0.32 (0.13 to 0.52)<.001−0.16 (−0.36 to 0.04).12
    Inconsistent discipline at 6–7 y0.08 (−0.08 to 0.25).33
    Inconsistent discipline at 8–9 y0.27 (0.08 to 0.46).006−0.07 (−0.26 to 0.12).47
Mother's mental health
    Emotional distress at 4–5 y0.91 (0.76 to 1.06)<.0010.28 (0.08 to 0.49).007
    Emotional distress at 6–7 y0.98 (0.80 to 1.15)<.0010.38 (0.17 to 0.59)<.001
    Emotional distress at 8–9 y0.98 (0.84 to 1.12)<.0010.19 (−0.01 to 0.40).07
    Depression at 4–5 y0.64 (0.49 to 0.80)<.001−0.13 (−0.32 to 0.06).19
    Depression at 6–7 y0.79 (0.61 to 0.97)<.001−0.01 (−0.24 to 0.22).94
    Depression at 8–9 y0.87 (0.71 to 1.02)<.0010.19 (−0.01 to 0.38).06
    Mother smokes at 4–5 y0.37 (0.20 to 0.55)<.0010.21 (−0.10 to 0.52).17
    Mother smokes at 6–7 y0.25 (0.05 to 0.45).010.05 (−0.30 to 0.40).78
    Mother smokes at 8–9 y0.27 (0.11 to 0.44)<.001−0.35 (−0.71 to 0.01).06
    Mother consumes ≥2 standard alcoholic drinks per d at 4–5 y−0.23 (−0.65 to 0.18).28
    Mother consumes ≥2 standard alcoholic drinks per d at 6–7 y−0.49 (−0.83 to −0.15)<.001−0.48 (−0.75 to −0.21)<.001
    Mother consumes ≥2 standard alcoholic drinks per d at 8–9 y−0.01 (−0.32 to 0.30).95
Family life stressors
    Financial hardship at 4–5 y0.61 (0.42 to 0.80)<.001
    Financial hardship at 6–7 y0.53 (0.36 to 0.70)<.001
    Financial hardship at 8–9 y0.60 (0.43 to 0.77)<.0010.15 (−0.07 to 0.36).18
    Partner conflict at 4–5 y0.03 (−0.12 to 0.19).65
    Partner conflict at 6–7 y0.28 (0.12 to 0.44)<.001−0.12 (−0.31 to 0.06).19
    Partner conflict at 8–9 y0.12 (−0.03 to 0.28).11
    Partner relationship satisfaction at 4–5 y−0.12 (−0.26 to 0.01).08
    Partner relationship satisfaction at 6–7 y−0.27 (−0.41 to −0.12)<.001−0.17 (−0.35 to 0.02).07
    Partner relationship satisfaction at 8–9 y−0.09 (−0.23 to 0.06).23
    Family grief/illness events by 4–5 y0.23 (0.09 to 0.37)<.0010.00 (−0.15 to 0.15).99
    Family grief/illness events between 4–5 y and 6–7 y0.26 (0.11 to 0.40)<.0010.09 (−0.05 to 0.23).19
    Family grief/illness events between 6–7 y and 8–9 y0.37 (0.23 to 0.51)<.0010.13 (−0.03 to 0.30).12
    Mother's job quality at 4–5 y.53
        1Reference
        2−0.13 (−0.54 to 0.27)
        3−0.07 (−0.47 to 0.32)
        4−0.20 (−0.60 to 0.19)
    Mother's job quality at 6–7 y.10
        1Reference
        2−0.28 (−1.09 to 0.54)
        3−0.19 (−0.97 to 0.59)
        4−0.31 (−1.07 to 0.45)
        5−0.48 (−1.24 to 0.29)
    Mother's job quality at 8–9 y.26
        1Reference
        20.19 (−0.54 to 0.92)
        3−0.21 (−0.83 to 0.42)
        4−0.15 (−0.77 to 0.47)
        5−0.21 (−0.85 to 0.43)
Community
    No. of types of child care at 4–5 y.06
        0Reference
        10.28 (−0.07 to 0.62)
        20.35 (−0.01 to 0.71)
        3–50.10 (−0.29 to 0.48)
    Time in center-based child care at 4–5 y0.08 (−0.05 to 0.20).22
    Time in nonparental child care at 6–7 y0.09 (−0.07 to 0.25).25
    Time in nonparental child care at 8–9 y0.14 (0.02 to 0.26).020.01 (−0.18 to 0.19).95
    Neighborhood disadvantage at 4–5 y−0.26 (−0.41 to −0.12)<.0010.05 (−0.14 to 0.23).61
    Neighborhood disadvantage at 6–7 y−0.36 (−0.50 to −0.21)<.001−0.20 (−0.57 to 0.17).28
    Neighborhood disadvantage at 8–9 y−0.32 (−0.45 to −0.18)<.0010.18 (−0.14 to 0.50).28
  • CI indicates confidence interval. R2 = 23.2%.

  • a Sample sizes ranged from 1761 to 3698.

  • b Financial hardship at 4 to 5 years and financial hardship at 6 to 7 years were omitted from the adjusted model because they were strongly colinear with financial hardship at 8 to 9 years.