TABLE 2

Event Characteristics

VariableNewborn: <1 mo (N = 62)Infant: 1 mo to <1 y (N = 105)Younger Child: 1 to <8 y (N = 90)Older Child: 8 to <21 y (N = 207)P
Immediate cause(s) of event, n (%)
    Arrhythmia27 (43.6)40 (38.1)33 (36.7)99 (47.8).21
    Acute respiratory22 (35.5)55 (52.4)43 (47.8)87 (42.0).13
    Insufficiency/compromise
    Hypotension47 (75.8)56 (53.3)52 (57.8)126 (60.9).04
    Metabolic/electrolyte disturbance7 (11.3)11 (10.5)10 (11.1)28 (13.5).85
    Airway obstruction2 (3.2)12 (11.4)6 (6.7)7 (3.4).03
    Toxicological problem2 (3.2)0 (0.0)2 (2.2)4 (1.9).32a
    Unknown3 (4.8)2 (1.9)6 (6.7)14 (6.8).27a
First recorded event rhythm, n (%)
    Asystole17 (27.4)13 (12.4)28 (31.1)55 (26.7).01
    Bradycardia16 (25.8)26 (24.8)10 (11.1)30 (14.5).01
    Pulseless electrical activity11 (17.7)22 (21.0)11 (12.2)53 (25.6).06
    Sinus rhythm/sinus tachycardia3 (4.8)2 (1.9)5 (5.6)2 (1.0).05a
    VTach with pulse0 (0.0)1 (1.0)2 (2.2)6 (2.9).54a
    Ventricular fibrillation4 (6.5)5 (4.8)10 (11.1)20 (9.7).33
    Pulseless VTach0 (0.0)8 (7.6)3 (3.3)13 (6.3).09a
    Unknown/not documented11 (17.7)28 (26.7)21 (23.3)27 (13.0).02
Duration of CPR
    Median (25, 75 interquartile range)23 (10, 48)25 (12, 40)28 (13, 55)20 (8, 35).05
Mechanical support, n (%)
    Open chest CPR20 (32.3)5 (4.8)4 (4.4)6 (2.9)<.001
    Cardiopulmonary bypass/ECMO12 (19.4)10 (9.5)5 (5.6)4 (1.9)<.001
Medications given, n (%)
    Atropine12 (19.4)37 (35.2)36 (40.0)117 (56.5)<.001
    Sodium bicarbonate49 (79.0)71 (67.6)64 (71.1)143 (69.1).42
    Magnesium3 (4.8)13 (12.4)7 (7.8)19 (9.2).4
    Calcium43 (69.4)52 (49.5)57 (63.3)83 (40.1)<.001
    Dextrose bolus4 (6.5)10 (9.5)8 (8.9)4 (1.9).02
    Dextrose bolus with insulin0 (0.0)8 (7.6)5 (5.6)2 (1.0).002a
    Epinephrine (>2 or unknown no. of doses)49 (79.0)83 (79.1)75 (83.3)160 (77.3).51
    Epinephrine (0–2 doses total)13 (21.0)22 (20.9)15 (16.7)47 (22.7).25
    Vasopressin0 (0.0)4 (3.8)3 (3.3)13 (6.3).17a
  • χ2 used except where otherwise noted; Kruskal-Wallis used for continuous variables. VTach w/pulse indicates ventricular tachycardia with pulse; Pulseless VTach, ventricular tachycardia without pulse; ECMO, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation.

  • a Fisher's exact test was used.