TABLE 1

Patient Demographics

VariableNewborn: <1 mo (N = 62)Infant: 1 mo to <1 y (N = 105)Younger Child: 1 to <8 y (N = 90)Older Child: 8 to <21 y (N = 207)P
Age
    Median (25%, 75% interquartile)1 d (0, 6)5 mo (3,7)2.5 y (1.75, 4)17 y (14,19)
Male, n (%)40 (64.5%)55 (52.4%)49 (54.4%)111 (53.6%).44
Race/ethnicity, n (%)
    White29 (46.8)47 (44.8)56 (62.2)109 (52.7).08
    Black11 (17.7)25 (23.8)13 (14.4)48 (23.2).28
    Hispanic7 (11.3)16 (15.2)7 (7.8)26 (12.6).45
    Other/unknown16 (25.8)17 (16.2)14 (15.6)27 (13.0).12
Type of hospital, n (%)
    Pediatric39 (62.9)67 (63.8)57 (63.3)56 (27.1)<.001
    Mixed23 (37.1)38 (36.2)32 (35.6)121 (58.5)<.001
    Adult0 (0.0)0 (0.0)1 (1.1)30 (14.5)<.001
Total No. of ICU beds
    Median (25%, 75% interquartile)31 (27, 76)34 (27, 58)32 (27, 58)50 (28, 70).07
Illness Category, n (%)
    Medical, cardiac6 (9.7)25 (23.8)17 (18.9)28 (13.5)<.001
    Medical, noncardiac8 (12.9)44 (41.9)51 (56.7)94 (45.4)<.001
    Surgical, cardiac45 (72.6)27 (25.7)13 (14.4)10 (4.8)<.001
    Surgical, noncardiac (including trauma)3 (4.8)9 (8.6)9 (10)75 (36.2)<.001
Comorbidities, n (%)
    Respiratory insufficiency/pneumonia31 (50.0)75 (71.1)64 (71.4)114 (55.0).002
    Hypotension33 (53.2)38 (36.2)38 (42.2)82 (39.6).17
    Existing cardiac failure45 (72.6)40 (38.1)19 (21.1)26 (12.6)<.001
    History of cardiac failure11 (17.7)39 (37.1)19 (21.1)24 (11.6)<.001
    Infection/septicemia14 (22.3)18 (17.1)19 (21.1)35 (16.9).67
    Arrhythmia22 (35.5)18 (17.1)15 (16.7)42 (20.3).02
    Metabolic/electrolyte abnormality13 (21.0)20 (19.1)21 (23.3)47 (22.7).87
    Toxicological problem1 (1.6)0 (0.0)2 (2.2)3 (1.5%).50a
    Malignancy2 (3.2)3 (2.9)2 (2.2)26 (12.6).001
    Trauma0 (0.0)3 (2.9)9 (10.0)57 (27.5)<.001
    None0 (0.0)2 (1.9)3 (3.3)10 (4.8).26a
Interventions in place at time of event, n (%)
    Pulse oximeter57 (91.9)104 (99.1)85 (94.4)188 (90.8).04
    Arterial catheter36 (58.1)42 (40.0)32 (35.6)77 (37.2).02
    Electrocardiogram monitor58 (93.6)104 (99.1)89 (98.9)204 (98.6).051
    Vasoactive infusion49 (79.0)40 (38.1)47 (52.2)106 (51.2)<.001
    Mechanical Ventilation50 (80.7)73 (69.5)62 (68.9)142 (68.6).31
  • χ2 used except where otherwise noted; Kruskal-Wallis used for continuous variables.

  • a Fisher's exact test was used.