TABLE 2

Characteristics Associated With Initiation of E-cigarette, Combustible Cigarette, and Dual-Product Use at 12-Month Follow-Up Among US Youth Reporting No Lifetime Nicotine- and/or Tobacco-Product Use at Baseline in the PATH Study, 2013–2015.

PredictorNeither (n = 7154), %E-cigarettes Only (n = 316)Combustible Cigarettes Only (n = 122)Dual Use (n = 110)
% InitiatingRRR (95% CI)aRRR (95% CI)% InitiatingRRR (95% CI)aRRR (95% CI)% InitiatingRRR (95% CI)aRRR (95% CI)
Internalizing problems
 Low95.42.7ReferenceReference0.8ReferenceReference1.1ReferenceReference
 Moderate92.44.61.73 (1.26–2.37)*1.22 (0.90–1.67)1.72.18 (1.33–3.58)*1.25 (0.73–2.15)1.31.25 (0.77–2.03)0.87 (0.51–1.50)
 High86.77.42.98 (2.18–4.08)*1.61 (1.12–2.33)*3.44.59 (2.82–7.48)*1.63 (0.88–3.01)2.62.60 (1.60–4.21)*1.15 (0.64–2.08)
Externalizing problems
 Low96.91.8ReferenceReference0.4ReferenceReference0.9ReferenceReference
 Moderate92.54.62.62 (1.83–3.76)*2.22 (1.50–3.27)*1.53.81 (1.87–7.76)*3.29 (1.56–6.93)*1.41.67 (0.95–2.92)1.52 (0.83–2.76)
 High87.76.84.09 (2.78–6.03)*2.78 (1.76–4.40)*3.18.31 (4.30–16.06)*5.59 (2.63–11.90)*2.33.05 (1.79–5.18)*2.23 (1.15–4.31)*
Sex
 Female92.63.9ReferenceReference1.8ReferenceReference1.6ReferenceReference
 Male93.04.41.11 (0.87–1.43)1.29 (0.98–1.70)1.30.71 (0.48–1.05)0.85 (0.56–1.30)1.30.78 (0.50–1.20)0.87 (0.56–1.37)
Age, y
 12–1494.33.3ReferenceReference1.3ReferenceReference1.1ReferenceReference
 15–1790.15.71.79 (1.43–2.25)*1.46 (1.16–1.83)*2.01.56 (1.10–2.21)*1.17 (0.81–1.71)2.22.13 (1.44–3.13)*1.61 (1.06–2.44)*
Race
 White91.94.7ReferenceReference1.7ReferenceReference1.7ReferenceReference
 African American95.72.40.50 (0.33–0.74)*0.52 (0.35–0.77)*1.60.80 (0.47–1.36)0.76 (0.45–1.30)0.40.23 (0.08–0.62)*0.22 (0.08–0.62)*
 Other94.33.50.73 (0.52–1.02)0.76 (0.53–1.08)0.80.45 (0.25–0.80)*0.44 (0.24–0.81)*1.40.82 (0.43–1.58)0.85 (0.44–1.63)
Parent education level
 Less than high school93.43.6ReferenceReference1.9ReferenceReference1.1ReferenceReference
 High school91.34.41.26 (0.82–1.95)1.09 (0.70–1.68)2.11.13 (0.63–2.05)0.93 (0.52–1.68)2.21.94 (0.96–3.94)1.68 (0.81–3.45)
 Some college92.34.31.21 (0.85–1.73)1.01 (0.70–1.47)1.70.89 (0.53–1.48)0.70 (0.42–1.17)1.71.56 (0.84–2.90)1.37 (0.74–2.51)
 Bachelor’s degree93.44.61.30 (0.84–2.00)1.01 (0.65–1.57)1.00.50 (0.24–1.05)0.38 (0.18–0.79)1.00.92 (0.43–2.00)0.71 (0.32–1.59)
 More than bachelor’s degree94.33.71.03 (0.63–1.69)0.82 (0.50–1.34)1.00.53 (0.23–1.22)0.44 (0.19–1.02)0.90.81 (0.32–2.06)0.64 (0.25–1.68)
Past-year marijuana use
 No93.34.0ReferenceReference1.4ReferenceReference1.3ReferenceReference
 Yes66.112.54.39 (2.48–7.76)*1.65 (0.82–3.32)10.710.69 (5.39–21.20)*4.18 (1.78–9.84)*10.611.57 (5.96–22.47)*4.27 (1.89–9.64)*
Past-year alcohol use
 No93.93.6ReferenceReference1.3ReferenceReference1.2ReferenceReference
 Yes78.011.94.00 (2.77–5.77)*2.50 (1.62–3.86)*5.04.60 (2.90–7.28)*2.13 (1.22–3.72)*5.15.15 (3.13–8.48)*2.51 (1.38–4.54)*
  • All percentages are weighted to be representative of adolescents ages 12–17 y by using the wave 2 replicate weights. Adjusted models are simultaneously adjusted for all covariates in the analysis.

  • * Statistical significance at P < .05.