TABLE 2

Commonly Used Local Anesthetic Agents: Doses, Duration, and Calculations

Local AnestheticMaximum Dose With Epinephrine, mg/kgaDuration of Action, minb
MedicalDental
Esters
    Procaine10.0660–90
    Chloroprocaine20.01230–60
    Tetracaine1.51180–600
Amides
    Lidocaine7.04.490–200
    Mepivacaine7.04.4120–240
    Bupivacaine3.01.3180–600
    Levobupivacaine3.02180–600
    Ropivacaine3.02180–600
    Articaine760–230
  • Maximum recommended doses and duration of action are shown. Note that lower doses should be used in very vascular areas.

  • a These are maximum doses of local anesthetics combined with epinephrine; lower doses are recommended when used without epinephrine. Doses of amides should be decreased by 30% for infants younger than 6 months. When lidocaine is being administered intravascularly (eg, during intravenous regional anesthesia), the dose should be decreased to 3 to 5 mg/kg; long-acting local anesthetic agents should not be used for intravenous regional anesthesia.

  • b Duration of action depends on concentration, total dose, and site of administration; use of epinephrine; and the patient’s age.