TABLE 1

Appropriate Intake of Food and Liquids Before Elective Sedation

Ingested MaterialMinimum Fasting Period, h
Clear liquids: water, fruit juices without pulp, carbonated beverages, clear tea, black coffee2
Breast milk4
Infant formula6
Nonhuman milk: because nonhuman milk is similar to solids in gastric emptying time, the amount ingested must be considered when determining an appropriate fasting period6
Light meal: a light meal typically consists of toast and clear liquids. Meals that include fried or fatty foods or meat may prolong gastric emptying time; both the amount and type of foods ingested must be considered when determining an appropriate fasting period6
  • Source: American Society of Anesthesiologists. Practice guidelines for preoperative fasting and the use of pharmacologic agents to reduce the risk of pulmonary aspiration: application to healthy patients undergoing elective procedures—a report of the American Society of Anesthesiologists. Available at: www.asahq.org/publicationsAndServices/NPO.pdf.