TABLE 3

Weighted SHS Prevalence and Adjusted ORs of Pediatric Behavioral Disorders According to SHS Exposure Status at Home and Across Significant Covariates in Children Aged 0 to 11 Years (N = 55 358) in the United States, 2007

Significant CovariatesSHS, WeightedAdjusted OR (95% CI)a
n (%)ADHD/ADDLearning DisabilitiesConduct DisordersTreatment or Counseling
SHS
    NoReferenceReferenceReferenceReference
    Yes6.0 (5.6–6.5)1.44 (1.21–1.72)1.54 (1.27–1.85)b1.78 (1.44–2.21)1.50 (1.27–1.79)
Gender
    Female26 733 (6.0)ReferenceReferenceReferenceReference
    Male28 566 (6.0)2.52 (2.24–2.83)1.80 (1.61–2.00)2.73 (2.31–3.24)1.96 (1.76–2.18)
Child's age
    0–2 y13 600 (4.0)ReferenceReferenceReference
    3–5 y13 966 (5.6)3.99 (1.94–8.22)Reference3.47 (1.81–6.66)3.77 (2.91–4.89)
    6–8 y13 592 (7.0)10.40 (4.77–22.9)1.31 (0.96–1.78)4.30 (2.10–8.81)3.82 (2.77–5.28)
    9–11 y14 200 (7.6)18.20 (8.34–39.9)2.16 (1.59–2.91)4.73 (2.31–9.67)4.19 (3.04–5.77)
Race/ethnicity
    White only40 236 (5.6)ReferenceReference
    Black only5513 (12.0)0.75 (0.63–0.90)0.62 (0.52–0.75)
    Multiracial3203 (7.9)1.08 (0.85–1.36)1.20 (0.98–1.48)
    Other only2936 (2.4)0.93 (0.67–1.29)1.00 (0.77–1.31)
Household composition
    2-Parent biological41 185 (3.6)ReferenceReferenceReferenceReference
    2-Parent stepfamily2551 (13.0)1.94 (1.63–2.30)1.63 (1.37–1.94)2.74 (2.17–3.46)2.17 (1.81–2.60)
    Single mother8305 (11.8)1.82 (1.58–2.10)1.41 (1.23–1.62)2.34 (1.94–2.83)2.26 (1.79–2.88)
    Other family type2994 (13.8)2.74 (1.54–4.88)2.03 (1.11–3.72)8.26 (4.63–14.7)5.54 (3.48–8.82)
Primary language spoken at home
    English50 537 (6.9)ReferenceReferenceReference
    Any other language4784 (11.8)0.58 (0.38–0.88)0.64 (0.45–0.92)0.59 (0.45–0.77)
Mothers' level of education
    Less than high school4249 (9.8)ReferenceReferenceReference
    High school graduate9551 (10.3)0.83 (0.67–1.02)0.94 (0.77–1.14)0.88 (0.68–1.14)
    More than high school37 975 (3.2)0.67 (0.55–0.82)0.71 (0.58–0.86)0.63 (0.48–0.81)
Household poverty status
     <100%6366 (11.7)1.89 (1.55–2.31)2.42 (2.00–2.92)3.07 (2.34–4.03)2.19 (1.83–2.62)
    100%–199%8967 (9.2)1.46 (1.24–1.73)1.66 (1.40–1.95)1.98 (1.54–2.54)1.49 (1.27–1.75)
    200%–399%17 164 (5.1)1.17 (1.02–1.35)1.33 (1.16–1.53)1.42 (1.13–1.79)1.07 (0.93–1.23)
    ≥400%18 208 (1.4)ReferenceReferenceReferenceReference
Foreign status of mother
    Yes7324 (1.1)1.84 (1.37–2.48)1.33 (1.10–1.61)
    No44 578 (6.9)ReferenceReference
Place of residence
    Metropolitan30 308 (5.4)1.24 (1.08–1.43)1.22 (1.01–1.47)1.23 (1.07–1.42)
    Nonmetropolitan8122 (10.8)ReferenceReferenceReference
Legal marital status of parents
    Married41 225 (3.5)Reference
    Separated1311 (12.9)1.19 (0.86–1.65)
    Divorced2911 (11.3)0.91 (0.68–1.20)
    Widowed316 (12.0)1.75 (1.10–2.76)
    Never married7769 (11.8)0.86 (0.70–1.07)
Low birth weight, <2500 g
    No24 511 (4.6)ReferenceReferenceReferenceReference
    Yes30 847 (7.2)2.12 (1.36–3.31)1.97 (1.42–2.73)2.06 (1.35–3.14)2.31 (1.79–3.00)
  • a Stepwise elimination multivariable logistic regression analyses.

  • b A significant interaction (SHS × poverty) term was included in the model.