Table 4.

Association Between Multiple Congenital Anomalies with Renal Agenesis and Hypoplasia and Mothers’ Light-toModerate Alcohol Consumption During Pregnancy: Atlanta Birth Defects Case-Control Study, 1968 Through 1980

Associated DefectNone, nNo. of Drinks/wk*
<33–13
nOR (95% CI)nOR (95% CI)
No anomaly1576847Referent428Referent
Agenesis/hypoplasia
 + Anal atresia123.7 (0.3–103.7)414.7 (1.6–346.8)
 + Cardiac defect420.9 (0.1–5.9)5†4.6 (1.1–20.4)
 + Neural tube defect111.9 (0.1–68.0)13.7 (0.1–134.7)
 + Malrotation123.7 (0.3–103.7)13.7 (0.1–134.7)
 + Hemivertebra310.6 (0.0–6.6)11.2 (0.0–13.2)
 + Accessory spleen10   0.0 Indeterminant2‡7.4 (0.5–205.4)
  • * n indicates number of infants; OR, odds ratio; and CI, confidence interval.

  • Cardiac defects included unspecified ventricular septal defect (n = 2), coarctation of the aorta (n = 1), atrial septal defect (n = 1), and aortic and mitral valve hypoplasia (n = 1). One infant had anal atresia, and another had hemivertebrae in addition to the cardiac defect.

  • Both infants also had a cardiac defect (atrial septal defect and aortic and mitral valve hypoplasia).