Table 3.

Risk Factors for Recurrent Otitis Media (ROM) in Children in the United States, Using Combined 1981/1988 Data

% OtitisOR−CI +CI P Value
Total population23.0
Gender
 Male24.91.31.11.4<.001
 Female20.90.80.70.9<.001
Race
 Black15.70.60.50.7<.001
 Other16.00.60.50.8<.001
 White25.21.81.62.1<.001
Hispanic
 Yes18.00.70.60.8<.001
 No23.71.41.21.7<.001
Poverty
 <100%18.20.70.60.8<.001
 ≥100%24.21.41.21.7<.001
Urbanization
 Urban (MSA—central city)21.60.90.81.01.07
 Nonurban23.51.10.991.3.07
Shares sleeping room
 Yes20.40.70.70.8<.001
 No26.21.41.31.5<.001
Birth order
 First born26.31.21.11.4.004
 Not first born22.60.90.81.03.17
 Only child22.51.00.91.1.32
Smoked during pregnancy
 Yes23.81.10.91.2.32
 No22.70.90.81.1.32
Allergies
 Yes37.52.42.12.7<.001
 No20.20.40.40.5<.001
Day care center
 Yes32.81.71.42.0<.001
 No22.30.60.50.7<.001
Health status
 Excellent/very good20.80.70.60.7<.001
 Good25.91.21.11.4.001
 Fair/poor47.93.32.54.2<.001
Region
 Northwest21.90.90.81.04.20
 Midwest22.81.00.91.1.81
 South24.31.11.011.2.04
 West22.00.90.81.1.37
Maternal education
 <High school graduate19.70.80.70.9<.001
 Some college23.21.00.91.1.53
 College graduate, plus27.01.31.11.5<.001
Maternal age at child’s birth
 <17 y17.60.70.51.001.03
 ≥17 y23.21.40.9992.0.03
Maternal employment status
 Employed25.91.41.21.5<.001
 Unemployed20.50.70.70.8<.001
Nursery
 Yes35.02.01.72.2<.001
 No21.50.50.40.6<.001
Day care or nursery
 Yes34.02.01.82.2<.001
 No20.80.50.50.6<.001
Unrelated sitter
 Yes29.11.51.31.7<.001
 No21.40.70.60.8<.001
  • Abbreviations: ROM, recurrent otitis media; OR, odds ratio; CI, confidence interval; MSA, metropolitan statistical areas.