TABLE 3

Odds (95% CIs) of Developmental Delay According to Duration of Breastfeeding for 14 660 Millennium Cohort Infants With No Missing Information on the Confounding Factors

Breastfeeding PatternUnadjustedAdjusted for Biological FactorsaAdjusted for Socioeconomic FactorsbAdjusted for Psychosocial FactorscAdjusted for All Factors
Gross motor delay
    1. Never breastfed1.001.001.001.001.00
    2. Short duration0.79 (0.67–0.93)0.78 (0.66–0.92)0.83 (0.70–0.98)0.82 (0.70–0.97)0.81 (0.69–0.96)
    3. Intermediate duration0.72 (0.56–0.93)0.70 (0.54–0.89)0.78 (0.61–1.00)0.77 (0.60–0.98)0.75 (0.58–0.96)
    4. Prolonged partial0.78 (0.63–0.96)0.76 (0.61–0.94)0.81 (0.66–1.00)0.81 (0.66–0.99)0.80 (0.65–0.98)
    5. Prolonged exclusive0.68 (0.56–0.83)0.65 (0.54–0.80)0.69 (0.56–0.85)0.71 (0.58–0.86)0.67 (0.54–0.84)
Wald testP = .0005P = .0001P = .005P = .005P = .002
Fine motor delay
    1. Never breastfed1.001.001.001.001.00
    2. Short duration0.83 (0.67–1.04)0.87 (0.70–1.09)0.93 (0.74–1.16)0.87 (0.70–1.09)0.94 (0.75–1.17)
    3. Intermediate duration0.71 (0.52–0.98)0.77 (0.56–1.06)0.83 (0.61–1.14)0.77 (0.56–1.05)0.84 (0.61–1.16)
    4. Prolonged partial0.62 (0.47–0.83)0.71 (0.54–0.93)0.74 (0.55–0.99)0.69 (0.52–0.92)0.78 (0.58–1.04)
    5. Prolonged exclusive0.73 (0.59–0.92)0.83 (0.66–1.05)0.86 (0.69–1.08)0.83 (0.66–1.04)0.93 (0.74–1.16)
Wald testP = .005P = .11P = .30P = .09P = .49
  • a Mother's age at birth, birth weight, gestation, and smoking during pregnancy.

  • b Social class, mother’s educational qualifications, mother's employment status, and lone parenthood.

  • c Malaise Inventory, postnatal attachment, parenting views, number of siblings, care while working, and hours cared for by others.