Clinical Features in the Delivery Room for ETT Epinephrine Responders Versus ETT Failures That Subsequently Responded to Intravenous Epinephrine

VariableETT Epinephrine (n = 14)Intravenous Epinephrine (n = 23)P
Meconium below the cords, n (%)2 (9)0 (0)NS
Presence of asystole, n (%)8 (57)15 (65)NS
Time to ROSC (minute of life)7.3 ± 6.011.7 ± 5.8.038
First EPI dose, mg/kg0.01 ± 0.0050.01 ± 0.004NS
Time of first EPI dose (minute of life)4.2 ± 2.05.2 ± 3.1NS
Median total number of EPI doses (including ETT doses for intravenous EPI group)13<.001
Median number of EPI doses (excluding ETT doses for intravenous EPI group)11NS
Median time after last EPI to ROSC2.51.5.009
Median Apgar score at 1 min00NS
Median Apgar score at 5 min10NS
Median Apgar score at 10 min40.025
Arterial cord pHa6.92 ± 0.246.99 ± 0.21NS
Arterial cord pco2, mm Hga87 ± 3284 ± 29NS
Arterial cord base excessa19 ± 1018 ± 8NS
  • NS indicates not statistically significant, P > .05; ROSC, return of spontaneous circulation; EPI, epinephrine.

  • a Some infants did not have a cord gas available: ETT EPI (n = 2), intravenous EPI (n = 6).