Long and Short Breastfeeding Durations According to Maternity Leave Characteristics, Maternal Characteristics, Child/Delivery Characteristics, and Interpersonal/Family/Community Characteristicsa

CharacteristicsAny BreastfeedingPredominant Breastfeeding
>6 mo (%)P>3 mo (%)P
Maternity leave characteristics
    Total maternity leave in weeks.29.15
        Did not take maternity leave39.423.9
    Paid maternity leave in weeks.41.30
        Did not take maternity leave39.423.9
    Time of return to work.0001.01
        Not yet returned to work46.729.5
Maternal characteristics
    Maternal race/ethnicity<.0001.02
        White, non–Hispanic39.329.3
        Black, non-Hispanic22.820.3
        Other, non-Hispanic40.927.9
    Maternal age, y<.0001.06
    Marital status<.0001.0001
    Maternal education<.0001<.0001
        <12th grade26.818.8
        High school diploma/equivalent26.618.1
        Vocational/technical or some college34.825.7
        Bachelor's degree or higher48.537.2
    Income status<.0001<.0001
        <185% FPL29.618.9
        ≥185% FPL40.330.9
    Country of birthb.07.68
        US/US territories36.426.8
        Foreign country40.426.0
    Smoking status in the last 3 mo of pregnancy.0003<.0001
Child/delivery characteristics
    Birth weight<.0001.001
        Normal (≥2500 g)37.226.9
        Low (<2500 g)24.116.7
    Mode of delivery.13.34
    Birth order.34.96
    Health care professional advice about breastfeeding.004.97
Interpersonal/family/community characteristics
    Separation from child for ≥1 wk<.0001.07
    Child care arrangements<.0001.31
        Parental care47.129.1
        In-home care31.725.7
        Out-of-home care27.924.4
    WIC participation by mother or child within the last 12 mo<.0001<.0001
        Urban, inside urban area37.327.1
        Urban, inside urban cluster33.226.1
  • Weight variable is W1R0. Percentages are row percentages.

  • a Sample restricted to singletons whose biological mothers were the respondent at the 9-month wave and who initiated breastfeeding and worked in the 12 months before delivery (n = 4200).

  • b The country of birth variable has a large number of missing observations because this was a variable ascertained at the 2-year interview by which time some participants had been lost to follow-up. The missing category is included in the analysis by applying the 9-month weight (W1R0).

  • c Urban/rural location of interview.

  • SOURCE: US Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, ECLS-B Longitudinal 9 Month-Preschool Restricted Use data file.