Time of Return to Work According to Maternal Characteristics, Child/Delivery Characteristics and Interpersonal/Family/Community Characteristics (N = 6150)a

CharacteristicsUnweighted nTotal %Time of Return to Work (%)P
1–6 wk7–12 wk≥13 wkNot Yet Returned to Work
All women18.635.821.224.5
Maternal characteristics
        White, non-Hispanic280061.264.261.861.657.7
        Black, non-Hispanic105014.513.114.316.114.6
        Other, non-Hispanic13005.
    Age, y<.0001
    Marital status.35
        ≤12 grade95014.011.410.115.220.6
        High school or equivalent180029.833.726.328.133.2
        Vocational/technical or some college175029.531.732.727.525.2
        Bachelor's degree or higher165026.823.230.929.221.0
    Income status<.0001
        <185% FPL280042.244.234.741.252.5
        ≥185% FPL335057.955.865.358.847.5
    Country of birthc.08
        US/US territories445079.583.879.380.176.1
        Foreign country125013.910.214.113.417.2
    Smoking in last 3 mo of pregnancy.01
Child/delivery characteristics
    Birth weight.01
        Normal (≥2500 g)490094.295.594.793.593.3
        Low (<2500 g)12005.
    Mode of delivery.07
    Birth order.01
    Health care professional advice about breastfeeding.61
Interpersonal/family/community characteristics
    Separation from child for ≥1 wk.61
    Child care arrangements<.0001
        Parental care250040.432.322.329.881.8
        In-home care105014.916.317.918.66.6
        Out-of-home care260044.751.459.851.711.6
    WIC participation by mother or child in last 12 mo<.0001
        Urban, inside urban area445072.965.372.576.275.9
        Urban, inside urban cluster75011.714.912.310.59.6
  • Weight variable is W1R0. Percentages may not add up to 100 due to rounding. Unweighted sample sizes have been rounded to the nearest 50. Column percentages are shown for the control variables.

  • a Sample restricted to singletons whose biological mothers were the respondent at the 9-month wave and worked in the 12 months before delivery.

  • b Estimate rounds to 0.

  • c The country of birth variable has a large number of missing observations because it was ascertained at the 2-year interview, by which time some participants had been lost to follow-up. The missing category is included in the analysis by applying the 9-month weight (W1R0).

  • d Urban/rural location of interview.

  • SOURCE: US Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, ECLS-B Longitudinal 9 Month-Preschool Restricted Use data file.