TABLE 4

Adjusted Effects of Degree of Maternal and Paternal Depression on Degree of Parental Engagement in Enrichment and Play Activities

VariableDepression B (SE)
MDFDMD × FD
Mother enrichment activities−.008 (.003)a−.007 (.005).001 (.001)a
Mother play activities−.007 (.004).000 (.005)−.001 (.001)
Father enrichment activities−.005 (.004)−.010 (.004)a.000 (.001)
Father play activities.003 (.004)−.005 (.004)−.000 (.001)
  • The following covariates were controlled: child gender, household income, mother race, mother and father employment, mother and father education, and number of children in the household. MD indicates mother depression; FD, father depression; MD × FD, interaction between mother and father depression. Brackets indicate reference group. Source: ECLS-B.

  • a P < .05.