TABLE 3

Adjusted Effects of Maternal and Paternal Depression on Outcomes

VariableDepression [No] Yes OR (95% CI)
MDFDMD × FD
Sleep position [back] other1.40 (1.11–1.76)a0.80 (0.60–1.06)0.74 (0.42–1.30)
Ever breastfed [yes] no1.48 (1.13–1.94)a0.98 (0.68–1.41)0.92 (0.38–2.21)
Bed with bottle [no] yes1.53 (1.16–2.02)a0.99 (0.68–1.45)1.08 (0.54–2.16)
Bed awake [yes] no0.75 (0.55–1.02)b0.66 (0.47–0.91)c2.73 (1.23–6.06)c
Mother read [every day] less often1.24 (0.97–1.60)1.04 (0.74–1.47)0.59 (0.31–1.14)
Mother tell stories [every day] less often1.42 (1.08–1.86)c1.40 (1.01–1.94)c0.54 (0.25–1.17)
Mother sing songs [every day] less often1.12 (0.85–1.47)1.16 (0.83–1.62)0.60 (0.27–1.37)
Mother errands [every day] less often1.10 (0.89–1.35)1.20 (0.89–1.63)0.72 (0.43–1.20)
Mother peekaboo [few times a week+] less often1.57 (1.08–2.28)c1.12 (0.66–1.92)1.11 (0.40–3.11)
Mother play outside [few times a week+] less often1.29 (0.94–1.75)1.26 (0.93–1.71)0.87 (0.50–1.49)
Father read [every day] less often1.55 (0.94–2.53)1.04 (0.58–1.86)0.90 (0.27–2.98)
Father tell stories [every day] less often0.99 (0.69–1.42)1.23 (0.75–2.01)0.76 (0.30–1.91)
Father sing songs [every day] less often1.39 (1.06–1.83)c0.92 (0.68–1.25)0.85 (0.43–1.69)
Father errands [every day] less often1.06 (0.76–1.47)1.15 (0.79–1.67)1.37 (0.58–3.22)
Father peekaboo [few times a week+] less often1.00 (0.68–1.49)1.28 (0.81–2.03)0.50 (0.20–1.25)
Father play outside [few times a week+] less often1.23 (0.98–1.55)1.42 (1.10–1.85)a0.71 (0.37–1.36)
  • The following covariates were controlled: child gender, household income, mother race, mother and father employment, mother and father education, and number of children in the household. MD indicates mother depression; FD, father depression; MD × FD, interaction between mother and father depression. Brackets indicate reference group. Source: ECLS-B.

  • a P < .01.

  • b P < .10.

  • c P < .05.