TABLE 3

Mixed-Effects Models of the Trajectory of Baseline, 7, and 12 Months

ParameterModel 1Model 2Model 3Model 4Model 5
FEV1FAMSS Adherence to MedicationDPD AdherenceFrequency of Symptoms, Child ReportSeverity of Symptoms, Child Report
β (95% CI)β (95% CI)β (95% CI)β (95% CI)β (95% CI)
Fixed effect
 Annual family income−0.020 (−0.060 to 0.020)0.034 (−0.083 to 0.151)0.004 (−0.027 to 0.035)−0.017 (−0.158 to 0.124)−0.014 (−0.063 to 0.035)
 Single-parent household0.018 (−0.169 to 0.206)0.054 (−0.486 to 0.595)0.111 (−0.033 to 0.255)−0.156 (−0.811 to 0.498)0.117 (−0.111 to 0.345)
 Hospitalization in past 12 mo−0.076 (−0.193 to 0.040)0.199 (−0.136 to 0.535)0.011 (−0.078 to 0.100)0.164 (−0.242 to 0.570)−0.008 (−0.150 to 0.133)
 Specialty clinic−0.052 (−0.243 to 0.139)0.027 (−0.524 to 0.578)0.083 (−0.063 to 0.230)0.104 (−0.563 to 0.772)0.008 (−0.225 to 0.240)
 Intervention group−0.141 (−0.337 to 0.055)−0.203 (−0.872 to 0.466)−0.051 (−0.228 to 0.127)−0.224 (−1.044 to 0.596)−0.147 (−0.415 to 0.120)
 Time0.060* (0.007 to 0.114)0.062 (−0.233 to 0.357)0.014 (−0.077 to 0.105)−0.075 (−0.443 to 0.292)−0.083 (−0.190 to 0.024)
Time intervention group*0.097* (0.021 to 0.173)0.485* (0.062 to 0.908)0.193** (0.062 to 0.323)−0.601* (−1.127 to −0.074)−0.106 (−0.260 to 0.048)
Random effect0.250*** (0.185 to 0.338)0.985 (0.356 to 2.727)0.061* (0.030 to 0.127)1.495* (0.576 to 3.88)0.328*** (0.231 to 0.465)
  • See Table 1 for income brackets. The single-parent category was no = 0 and yes = 1. Hospitalizations included the number of inpatient hospitalizations recorded in the medical record during the 12 mo before baseline. The specialty clinic category included whether an adolescent was seen in a specialty asthma clinic during the 12 mo before baseline (no = 0 and yes = 1). The intervention group was FS = 0 and MST = 1. The time category was baseline = 0, 7 mo = 1, and 12 mo = 2. β is the regression coefficient.

  • * P < .05;

  • ** P < .01;

  • *** P < .001.