TABLE 2

Visual Acuity Tests

TestDescriptionApplicable Age, y
Allen cardsTest involving 4 flash cards that contain 7 schematic figures; the figures are identified from various distances2–4
HOTVTest involving identification of the letters H, O, T, and V; the letters decrease in size from the top to the bottom of the chart>4
Lea symbolsTest involving matching the symbols from the cards to the symbols on the wall; the symbols decrease in size from the top to the bottom of the chart2–4
SnellenTest involving a chart with 11 lines of letters; the first line consists of 1 very large letter, and each row below it has increasing numbers of letters that decrease in size>4
Tumbling ETest involving the letter E presented with the arms pointing in different directions; the letters decrease in size from the top to the bottom of the chart>4
  • Data sources: American Academy of Pediatrics11 and Prevent Blindness America.12