Mean (SD) Group Differences in Diary-Measured Caregiver and Caregiver-Infant Behavior per 24 Hours at 10 Days of Infant Age

VariableLondon CommunityCopenhagen CommunityProximal CareANOVA Pa
Min infants heldb509 (220)584 (187)989 (321)g<.001
Min infant held while asleepb152 (177)211 (173)571 (288)g<.001
No. infant feeds11 (4)12 (3)14 (4)g<.001
Min feeding244 (71)c211 (66)c240 (94).015
Min interactiond148 (73)148 (51)133 (61)NS
Min without any contacte832 (214)768 (182)377 (299)g<.001
Min infant awake and settled without any contacte81 (53)f60 (43)f32 (30)f<.001
Min infant fuss/cry without any contacte38 (32)g15 (12)10 (13)<.001
  • NS indicates not significant.

  • a After ANOVA, Tukey tests were used to identify significant differences (P < .05) between pairs of groups:

  • b Holding or carrying alone, in combination with any other parenting behavior, and holding while feeding.

  • c Different from each other, but not the third group figure.

  • d Time spent playing, talking, soothing, or caring, including combinations of these with each other and with holding (but not holding alone).

  • e Includes total time without holding, playing, talking, soothing, or caring.

  • f All 3 group figures are different.

  • g Different from both other group figures.