TABLE 3

Changes From Baseline in Body Composition, Cardiovascular, and Insulin Sensitivity Parameters for Weight Management and Control Groups at 6, 12, and 24 Mo

OutcomeMonthWeight Management Group, Mean (95% CI)Control Group, Mean (95% CI)Treatment Effect (Intervention-Control), Mean (95% CI)Between-Group P
Weight, kg6−2.4 (−4.0 to −0.8)4.6 (2.5 to 6.8)−7.0 (−9.8 to −4.3)<.0001a
120.3 (−1.4 to 2.0)8.3 (6.1 to 10.6)−8.0 (−10.9 to −5.2)<.0001a
245.9 (4.0 to 7.9)12.0 (9.5 to 14.6)−6.1 (−9.3 to −2.9).0002a
Height, cm62.5 (1.8 to 3.2)2.0 (1.1 to 3.0)0.4 (−0.7 to 1.6).45
124.5 (3.8 to 5.2)3.5 (2.5 to 4.4)1.0 (−0.2 to 2.2).10
247.7 (6.8 to 8.6)6.4 (5.2 to 7.5)1.3 (−0.1 to 2.8).07
BMI6−2.1 (−2.7 to −1.5)0.9 (0.1 to 1.7)−3.0 (−4.0 to −2.0)<.0001a
12−1.8 (−2.4 to −1.1)1.9 (1.1 to 2.8)−3.7 (−4.8 to −2.6)<.0001a
24−0.9 (−1.7 to −0.1)1.9 (0.9 to 2.9)−2.8 (−4.0 to −1.6)<.0001a
BMI z score6−0.16 (−0.20 to −0.13)0.01 (−0.04 to 0.06)−0.18 (−0.24 to −0.12)<.0001a
12−0.21 (−0.25 to −0.17)0.01 (−0.04 to 0.07)−0.23 (−0.29 to −0.16)<.0001a
24−0.20 (−0.25 to −0.16)−0.05 (−0.10 to 0.01)−0.16 (−0.23 to −0.09)<.0001a
Body fat, %6−2.7 (−3.9 to −1.6)2.1 (0.6 to 3.6)−4.9 (−6.7 to −3.0)<.0001a
12−3.9 (−5.1 to −2.8)2.1 (0.6 to 3.6)−6.0 (−7.9 to −4.1)<.0001a
24−3.6 (−4.9 to −2.3)0.6 (−1.2 to 2.3)−4.2 (−6.4 to −2.0).0002a
Body fat mass, kg6−3.6 (−5.3 to −1.9)4.3 (2.1 to 6.6)−7.9 (−10.8 to −5.1)<.0001a
12−3.7 (−5.4 to −1.9)5.7 (3.4 to 8.1)−9.4 (−12.3 to −6.5)<.0001a
24−0.6 (−2.6 to 1.4)5.2 (2.6 to 7.8)−5.8 (−9.1 to −2.6).0005a
Blood pressure, mm Hg systolic6−1.5 (−3.7 to 0.7)0.4 (−2.6 to 3.3)−1.9 (−5.6 to 1.8).31
12−1.3 (−3.7 to 1.1)−0.3 (−3.4 to 2.8)−1.0 (−4.9 to 2.9).62
24−2.5 (−5.5 to 0.5)−1.9 (−5.8 to 1.9)−0.6 (−5.5 to 4.3).81
Blood pressure, mm Hg diastolic6−2.2 (−4.3 to −0.2)1.4 (−1.3 to 4.1)−3.6 (−7.0 to −0.3).04a
121.3 (−0.9 to 3.5)2.3 (−0.5 to 5.2)−1.1 (−4.6 to 2.5).56
240.8 (−1.9 to 3.5)2.8 (−0.7 to 6.3)−2.0 (−6.4 to 2.4).38
Cholesterol, mg/dL total6−4.2 (−8.5 to 0.1)4.6 (−1.2 to 10.3)−8.8 (−15.9 to −1.6).02a
12−4.7 (−9.2 to −0.1)6.5 (0.5 to 12.4)−11.2 (−18.7 to −3.6).004a
24−8.0 (−13.5 to −2.4)5.0 (−1.8 to 11.8)−13.0 (−21.7 to −4.2).004a
Cholesterol, mg/dL HDL61.5 (−0.4 to 3.4)−0.7 (−3.2 to 1.9)2.2 (−1.0 to 5.4).18
122.0 (0.1 to 4.0)0.3 (−2.3 to 2.9)1.8 (−1.5 to 5.0).29
243.7 (1.5 to 5.9)1.3 (−1.6 to 4.1)2.5 (−1.1 to 6.1).18
Cholesterol, mg/dL LDL6−0.7 (−4.5 to 3.2)5.3 (0.2 to 10.4)−6.0 (−12.3 to 0.4).07
120.3 (−3.8 to 4.3)5.8 (0.5 to 11.1)−5.5 (−12.2 to 1.2).11
24−4.4 (−9.5 to 0.6)5.9 (−0.2 to 12.1)−10.4 (−18.3 to −2.4).01a
Triglycerides, mg/dLb6−12.5 (−17.2 to −6.3)−0.7 (−10.3 to 12.9)−11.8 (−20.8 to −0.5).04a
12−14.5 (−18.9 to −8.6)−4.2 (−13.1 to 8.7)−10.4 (−19.5 to 0.6).06
24−17.0 (−21.2 to −10.6)−6.6 (−15.7 to 7.4)−10.4 (−20.2 to 1.3).07
Fasting glucose, mg/dL6−1.9 (−3.4 to −0.3)−0.9 (−2.9 to 1.1)−0.9 (−3.5 to 1.6).46
12−2.4 (−4.1 to −0.8)−1.1 (−3.2 to 1.1)−1.4 (−4.1 to 1.3).32
24−1.7 (−3.9 to 0.4)−1.5 (−4.1 to 1.2)−0.3 (−3.7 to 3.1).87
Fasting insulin, μIU/mLb6−4.5 (−5.2 to −3.5)1.3 (−1.9 to 6.1)−5.8 (−7.9 to −4.5).0001a
12−4.6 (−5.3 to −3.4)3.4 (−0.7 to 9.6)−8.0 (−10.0 to −6.9)<.0001a
24−4.7 (−5.5 to −3.2)4.5 (−0.8 to 13.2)−9.2 (−11.0 to −7.5).0001a
HOMA-IRb6−1.04 (−1.18 to −0.80)0.26 (−0.46 to 1.38)−1.29 (−1.78 to −1.02).0001a
12−1.07 (−1.21 to −0.82)0.72 (−0.21 to 2.16)−1.78 (−2.24 to −1.60)<.0001a
24−1.07 (−1.23 to −0.76)0.98 (−0.22 to 3.03)−2.05 (−2.48 to −1.75).0001a
  • Data are presented as mean (SD) unless otherwise indicated. HDL indicates high-density lipoprotein; LDL, low-density lipoprotein.

  • a Statistically significant.

  • b Data are presented as geometric means with geometric SDs.