APPENDIX

Measures Used in Study

Name of MeasureVariables MeasuredItemsSample ItemsResponse Options and ScoresReliability
Wave 1Wave 2Wave 3
General Media Habits Questionnaire38,45Weekly amount of video game play6On a usual school day, how many hours do you play computer/video games in the morning?HoursNANANA
Frequency of visiting LAN center2How often do you visit game arcades or gaming centers on weekdays/weekends?Never (1) to almost always (4)NANANA
Violent game exposure4 (for each of 3 games)How often do you shoot or kill other players in this game?Never (1) to almost always (4)NANANA
Identification with game characters2 (for each of 3 games)How much is your in-game character like you in real life?Never (1) to almost always (4)NANANA
Online game play1 (for each of 3 games)Is the game played online with other people?Never (1) to almost always (4)NANANA
Barratt Impulsiveness Scale56Impulsivity14I talk even when I know I shouldn't.Strongly disagree (1) to strongly agree (4)0.690.770.78
Personal Strengths Inventory II57Social competence4I get along well with other people.Strongly disagree (1) to strongly agree (4)0.730.780.80
Emotional regulation6I know how to deal with stress.Strongly disagree (1) to strongly agree (4)0.620.710.73
Goal-setting5I set goals and plan how to reach those goals.Strongly disagree (1) to strongly agree (4)0.710.760.76
Children's Empathic Attitudes Questionnaire58Empathy15I understand how other students feel.No, maybe, or yes0.860.870.86
Normative beliefs about aggression59Normative beliefs about aggression20In general, it is OK to hit other people.It's perfectly OK (1) to it's really wrong (4)0.940.950.95
Hostile attribution bias60Hostile attribution bias126 scenarios0.790.810.83
Aggressive fantasies61,62Aggressive fantasies6Do you ever daydream about people getting killed?Never (1) to almost always (4)0.780.820.84
Self-report of aggression63Physically aggressive behavior6When someone has angered or provoked me in some way, I have reacted by hitting that person.Not true at all (1) to very true (4)NA0.860.87
Relationally aggressive behavior6I have spread rumors about a person just to be unkind.Not true at all (1) to very true (4)NA0.780.80
Physical victimization3I often get hit or kicked by others.Not true at all (1) to very true (4)NA0.840.85
Relational victimization3I get ignored by others when they are angry with me.Not true at all (1) to very true (4)NA0.640.69
Parent-family connectedness64Parent-child relationship6I feel close to my mother.Strongly disagree (1) to strongly agree (4)0.90NA0.89
Pathological video game use5Pathological gaming10In the past year, has your schoolwork suffered because you spent too much time playing computer/video games?Yes, no, or sometimes0.710.770.79
Problematic gaming1Problematic gaming10Have you skipped meals, baths, or sleep so you could play more computer/video games?Yes, no, or sometimes0.850.830.84
ADHD screen65ADHD18I feel restless.Never or rarely (1) to very often (4)NA0.920.93
Asian adolescent depression scale66Depression22I often feel like crying.Strongly disagree (1) to strongly agree (5)NA0.950.96
Anxiety67Anxiety20I am scared to go to school.Not true or hardly ever true (0) to very true or often true (2)NA0.900.92
Social phobia68Social phobia17I avoid speaking to anyone in authority.Not at all (1) to extremely (5)NA0.930.92
School performanceSchool performance4What marks did you get for your last exam for the following subjects?<50 (1) to >90 (6)NANANA
  • ADHD indicates attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder; NA, not applicable.