TABLE 2

Significant Differences Between Latent Classes of Gamers Who Became Pathological Gamers and Those Who Never Were Pathological Gamers

VariableMean ± SEFdfPPartial η2
Starts GroupNever Group
Potential risk factors
    Impulsivity score
        Time 12.49 ± 0.092.25 ± 0.017.631,2427.006.003
        Time 22.58 ± 0.092.24 ± 0.0115.611,2234.001.007
        Time 32.69 ± 0.092.22 ± 0.0129.411,2167.001.013
    Social competence score
        Time 12.58 ± 0.122.96 ± 0.0110.541,2418.001.004
        Time 22.76 ± 0.102.97 ± 0.014.091,2244.043.002
        Time 32.76 ± 0.103.06 ± 0.018.201,2154.004.004
    Emotional regulation score
        Time 12.53 ± 0.112.77 ± 0.015.391,2421.020.002
        Time 22.41 ± 0.092.81 ± 0.0117.451,2249.000.008
        Time 32.55 ± 0.092.87 ± 0.0111.571,2156.001.005
    Empathy score
        Time 12.20 ± 0.072.34 ± 0.013.901,2507.048.002
        Time 22.16 ± 0.072.34 ± 0.017.381,2265.007.003
        Time 32.15 ± 0.072.34 ± 0.017.571,2172.006.003
    Weekly amount of video game play, h
        Time 131.12 ± 4.1919.28 ± 0.487.901,2730.005.003
        Time 237.10 ± 4.2120.98 ± 0.5114.471,2166.001.007
        Time 340.66 ± 3.7619.19 ± 0.4732.061,2050.001.015
    LAN center frequency score
        Time 11.00 ± 0.070.84 ± 0.015.231,2559.020.002
        Time 21.09 ± 0.060.78 ± 0.0127.101,2287.001.012
        Time 31.02 ± 0.050.73 ± 0.0131.511,2195.001.014
    Problematic gaming symptoms score
        Time 13.44 ± 0.341.44 ± 0.0433.511,2481.001.013
        Time 23.61 ± 0.261.01 ± 0.0399.221,2242.001.042
        Time 35.72 ± 0.230.83 ± 0.03452.971,2155.001.174
    Identification with game characters score
        Time 12.25 ± 0.171.96 ± 0.022.851,2131.091.001
        Time 22.15 ± 0.151.77 ± 0.026.8621,1980.009.003
        Time 32.30 ± 0.131.67 ± 0.0222.071,1802.001.012
Potential outcomes
    School performance score
        Time 22.76 ± 0.223.24 ± 0.034.761,2309.030.002
        Time 32.69 ± 0.223.10 ± 0.033.461,2242.060.002
    Goal-setting score at time 22.73 ± 0.102.93 ± 0.013.901,2250.050.002
    Parent-child relationship score at time 33.00 ± 0.113.46 ± 0.0118.881,2143.001.009
    Violent game exposure score
        Time 27.40 ± 0.763.94 ± 0.0920.541,2002.001.010
        Time 37.34 ± 0.683.38 ± 0.0933.851,1816.001.018
    Normative beliefs about aggression score
        Time 22.21 ± 0.121.82 ± 0.0110.461,2282.001.005
        Time 32.44 ± 0.111.79 ± 0.0135.081,2152.001.016
    Aggressive fantasies score
        Time 22.45 ± 0.121.85 ± 0.0126.291,2277.001.011
        Time 32.48 ± 0.111.80 ± 0.0135.781,2168.001.016
    Hostile attribution bias score at time 30.47 ± 0.040.29 ± 0.0118.061,2231.001.008
    Physically aggressive behavior score
        Time 22.17 ± 0.111.59 ± 0.0129.711,2283.001.013
        Time 32.35 ± 0.101.49 ± 0.0175.081,2175.001.033
    Relationally aggressive behavior score
        Time 22.28 ± 0.101.73 ± 0.0127.211,2282.001.012
        Time 32.41 ± 0.101.64 ± 0.0156.641,2174.001.025
    Physical victimization score
        Time 22.08 ± 0.131.63 ± 0.0211.521,2281.001.005
        Time 32.10 ± 0.121.49 ± 0.0224.091,2171.001.011
    Relational victimization score
        Time 22.19 ± 0.121.78 ± 0.0211.321,2281.001.005
        Time 32.29 ± 0.121.70 ± 0.0222.771,2171.001.010
    Online game play score
        Time 22.70 ± 0.202.32 ± 0.023.801,1989.051.002
        Time 32.96 ± 0.202.37 ± 0.039.161,1804.003.005
    ADHD symptoms score
        Time 22.28 ± 0.091.74 ± 0.0134.401,2261.001.015
        Time 32.65 ± 0.091.69 ± 0.01117.741,2207.001.051
    Anxiety score
        Time 20.84 ± 0.070.65 ± 0.018.041,2241.005.004
        Time 30.95 ± 0.070.63 ± 0.0121.211,2203.001.010
    Social phobia score
        Time 22.60 ± 0.142.27 ± 0.025.141,2216.023.002
        Time 32.46 ± 0.132.19 ± 0.024.091,2164.043.002
    Depression score
        Time 23.17 ± 0.142.24 ± 0.0243.561,2295.001.019
        Time 32.85 ± 0.142.17 ± 0.0225.261,2188.001.011
  • ADHD indicates attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.