TABLE 2

Association Between Cord-Blood Levels of 25(OH)D and the Risk of Infection by the Age of 3 Months

Outcome25(OH)D Concentration, OR (95% CI)P for Trenda
≥75 nmol/L25–74 nmol/L<25 nmol/L
Respiratory infection (N = 553 cases)
    Unadjusted1.00 (reference)1.22 (0.89–1.67)1.80 (1.19–2.74).02
    Multivariable model 11.00 (reference)1.39 (0.98–1.99)2.16 (1.35–3.46).004
    Multivariable model 21.00 (reference)1.35 (0.88–2.08)2.04 (1.13–3.67).03
Any infection (N = 697 cases)
    Unadjusted1.00 (reference)1.27 (0.88–1.83)1.84 (1.11–3.07).03
    Multivariable model 11.00 (reference)1.47 (0.98–2.22)2.21 (1.26–3.90).008
    Multivariable model 21.00 (reference)1.49 (0.92–2.43)2.36 (1.17–4.73).02
  • Model 1 adjusted for season of birth; model 2 adjusted for season of birth plus 14 potential confounders (study site, maternal age at birth, New Zealand Deprivation Index, maternal history of asthma, paternal history of asthma, gestational age, gender, child's ethnicity, any smoking during pregnancy, any passive smoke exposure at 3 months of age, number of children younger 16 years in household at the time the child was 3 months old, endotoxin on bedroom floor at the time the child was 3 months old [in quartiles], damp musty smell in any room of home at the time the child was 3 months old, and duration of exclusive breastfeeding).

  • a P for trend is from logistic regression models using a variable comprising the median value within each vitamin D group.