TABLE 2

Pain-Relieving Strategies According to Provider Reports

StrategyProportion, %OR (95% CI)P
Baseline (N = 51)6 mo (N = 41)
Infant needle size of >⅝ in15.234.14.5 (1.1–17.9).034
Toddler needle size of >⅝ in17.051.215.0 (3.3–68.2)<.001
Adolescent needle size of >⅝ in31.963.443.1 (4.0–460.0).002
Sucrose/Sweet-ease (infants)3.929.331.6 (3.2–314.4).003
Pinwheel (toddlers/school-aged children)11.853.781.0 (7.4–882.3)<.001
Focused breathing (toddlers/school-aged children)35.356.13.0 (1.2–7.8).021
Topical anesthetics (toddlers/school-aged children)15.724.41.8 (0.5–6.2)NS
ShotBlocker (toddlers/school-aged children)3.946.350.3 (7.4–339.2)<.001
  • Odds ratios (ORs) were adjusted for practice. CI indicates confidence interval; NS, not significant.