RRs of Death and/or Morbidities for VLBW Infants With DS and Other VLBW Infants in NRN Born in 1994–2008

OutcomeAdjusted RR (95% CI)
DS vs Non–DS CAsDS vs Other BDsDS vs No BDs
Death0.40 (0.31–0.52)a0.83 (0.66–1.04)2.47 (2.00–3.07)a
PDA0.97 (0.78–1.19)1.25 (1.04–1.49)b2.22 (1.87–2.64)a
NEC3.91 (1.88–8.10)a2.04 (1.31–3.17)c2.51 (1.65–3.81)a
PDA with CHDd0.96 (0.67–1.37)1.27 (0.94–1.73)2.60 (1.93–3.51)a
NEC with CHDd5.39 (1.57–18.50)c2.70 (1.44–5.07)c3.77 (2.07–6.86)a
PDA without CHD0.98 (0.76–1.27)1.33 (1.06–1.66)b2.08 (1.69–2.57)a
NEC without CHD3.11 (1.24–7.82)b1.77 (0.95–3.27)1.93 (1.08–3.44)b
LOS1.88 (1.22–2.92)c1.09 (0.81–1.47)1.49 (1.12–1.99)c
Severe IVH1.63 (0.83–3.20)1.17 (0.72–1.87)1.54 (0.98–2.44)
Severe IVH or PVL1.23 (0.66–2.28)0.94 (0.59–1.51)1.32 (0.83–2.08)
ROP0.96 (0.63–1.46)0.78 (0.57–1.07)0.89 (0.65–1.22)
    Adjusted for days of oxygen use0.93 (0.62–1.40)0.74 (0.54–1.02)0.78 (0.57–1.07)
ROP stage 3 or higher0.29 (0.04–2.08)0.22 (0.04–1.31)0.27 (0.05–1.63)
    Adjusted for days of oxygen use0.26 (0.04–1.83)0.18 (0.03–1.05)0.19 (0.03–1.09)
BPD0.76 (0.55–1.04)1.06 (0.83–1.35)1.76 (1.39–2.24)a
PDA or death within 12 h0.79 (0.66–0.94)c1.04 (0.88–1.22)1.91 (1.63–2.23)a
NEC or death within 12 h0.67 (0.48–0.95)b0.92 (0.68–1.24)1.88 (1.41–2.51)a
PDA or death within 12 h with CHDd0.86 (0.62–1.21)1.22 (0.91–1.64)2.36 (1.77–3.15)a
NEC or death within 12 h with CHDd1.96 (0.86–4.46)2.08 (1.16–3.76)b3.00 (1.70–5.30)a
PDA or death within 12 h without CHD0.76 (0.62–0.94)c1.0 (0.83–1.20)1.77 (1.48–2.12)a
NEC or death within 12 h without CHD0.52 (0.36–0.76)a0.66 (0.47–0.94)b1.60 (1.15–2.23)c
LOS or death within 3 d0.63 (0.50–0.81)a0.76 (0.61–0.94)b1.29 (1.05–1.59)b
Severe IVH/PVL or death within 28 d and no cranial sonography0.40 (0.30–0.55)a0.64 (0.49–0.83)a1.25 (0.96–1.61)
ROP or death within 28 d0.56 (0.47–0.67)a0.78 (0.67–0.92)c1.09 (0.93–1.28)
    Adjusted for days of oxygen use0.55 (0.45–0.66)a0.80 (0.67–0.96)b1.11 (0.94–1.32)
ROP stage 3 or higher or death within 28 d0.31 (0.24–0.41)a0.65 (0.51–0.82)a1.38 (1.10–1.73)c
    Adjusted for days of oxygen use0.33 (0.25–0.45)a0.67 (0.51–0.87)c1.42 (1.10–1.83)c
BPD or death before PMA of 36 wk0.63 (0.52–0.76)a0.92 (0.78–1.08)1.65 (1.41–1.94)a
  • RRs and CIs were from a modified Poisson regression model fit to each outcome that included study center, GA (<25, 25–28, or ≥29 weeks), BW (401–750, 751–1000, 1001–1250, or 1251–1500 g), and male gender in addition to the BD group indicator. In a secondary analysis, number of days of supplemental oxygen use also was included in the model assessing ROP. Supplemental oxygen use was defined as oxygen received through any method, including high-frequency ventilation, conventional ventilation, nasal synchronized intermittent mandatory ventilation, continuous positive airway pressure therapy, or nasal cannula, hood, or incubator use. Whether the RR was significantly different from 1.0 was determined with the Wald χ2 test on the basis of estimates from the Poisson regression model fit to the outcome.

  • a P ≤ .001.

  • b P ≤ .05.

  • c P ≤ .01.

  • d CHD diagnosed among infants with DS, infants with non–DS CAs, and infants with other BDs.