TABLE 2

Pesticide Exposure (nmol/kg per day) Calculated From Metabolite Concentrations in Urine for 35 Ecuadorian Primary School Children Without (Controls) and 37 Children With (Exposed) Prenatal Pesticide Exposure

AnalyteControlsExposedPa
No. DetectableMedianMaximumNo. DetectableMedianMaximum
Dimethyldithiophosphate120.8581.08.21
Dimethylthiophosphate74.1254.77.47
Dimethylphosphate310.4092.39300.2006.78.06
Diethyldithiophosphate001.00
Diethylthiophosphate190.0950.45230.0786.77.48
Diethylphosphate300.2972.19290.1937.85.05
All dimethyl metabolites310.4176.53300.2076.94.07
All diethyl metabolites310.4262.49330.27314.62.04
  • The level of detection was 0.3 μg/L for dimethylphosphate and dimethylthiophosphate and 0.1 μg/L for all other alkylphosphate metabolites measured. If detectable concentrations were present in less than half of the samples, no median is indicated.

  • a Mann-Whitney test.