TABLE 4

Percent of Births With Selected Characteristics According to Race and Hispanic Origin of Mother: United States, 1990 and 2003 (Final) and 2004 (Preliminary)

All RacesNon-Hispanic WhiteNon-Hispanic BlackHispanic
200420031990200420031990a200420031990a200420031990a
Mother
    <20 y of age10.310.312.87.47.59.617.317.423.214.314.316.8
    ≥40 y of age2.72.61.23.03.01.22.12.10.81.91.91.2
    Unmarried35.734.628.024.523.616.969.268.566.746.445.036.7
    <12 completed years of schoolbc21.623.811.615.225.030.130.753.9
    ≥16 completed years of schoolbc26.617.535.522.513.47.28.75.1
    Smokercd10.718.414.321.08.315.92.76.7
    Diabetes during pregnancy3.32.13.12.23.11.83.22.0
    Pregnancy-associated hypertension3.72.74.33.04.12.82.61.8
    Health care utilization
        First-trimester prenatal carec84.175.689.083.375.961.077.560.2
        Midwife-attended births8.03.97.73.27.14.49.36.2
        Cesarean delivery rate29.127.522.729.227.623.431.029.222.127.926.521.2
Infant
    Birth weight
        VLBWe1.51.41.31.21.20.93.13.12.91.21.21.0
        LBWe8.17.97.07.27.05.613.713.613.36.86.76.1
    Preterm birthf12.512.310.611.511.38.517.917.818.912.011.911.0
    Multiple births per 1000 total births
    Live births in twin deliveries (not percent)31.522.635.222.934.726.721.318.0
    Live births in higher-order multiple     deliveries (not percent)1.90.72.60.91.10.50.90.4
  • Race and Hispanic origin are reported separately on birth certificates. Persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race. — indicates that data are not available. Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention/NCHS, National Vital Statistics System, natality.

  • a Excludes data for New Hampshire and Oklahoma, which did not report Hispanic origin.

  • b Includes mothers ≥20 years of age. For 1990 excludes data for New York (exclusive of New York City) and Washington, which did not report educational attainment of mother.

  • c Excludes data for Pennsylvania and Washington, which implemented the 2003 revision to the US Standard Certificate of Live Birth for data-year 2003. This change has resulted in a lack of comparability between items based on the 2003 revision and data based on the 1989 revision to the US Certificate of Live Birth (see ref 1).

  • d For 2003 excludes data for California and for 1990 excludes data for California, Indiana, New York, Oklahoma, and South Dakota, which did not report tobacco use during pregnancy.

  • e VLBW is a birth weight of <1500 g (3 lb, 4 oz), and LBW is a birth weight of <2500 g (5 lb, 8 oz).

  • f Born before 37 completed weeks of gestation.