TABLE 4.

Standards of Neonatal Care

StandardInfants Who Died, % (n = 366)Infants Who Survived, % (n = 395)Crude OR (95% CI)Adjusted OR* (95% CI)
Resuscitation at birth
    Insufficient staff136/298 (45.6)134/308 (43.5)1.09 (0.79–1.50)1.12 (0.91–1.55)
        Not known6887
    Poor response at 1 min7/224 (3.1%)7/158 (4.4%)0.70 (0.24–2.02)0.68 (0.23–1.99)
        Not known2632
    Poor response at 5 min24/134 (17.9)14/59 (23.7)0.70 (0.33–1.48)0.74 (0.35–1.58)
        Not known3534
    Failures of external chest compression6/57 (10.5)3/14 (21.4)0.43 (0.09–1.99)0.44 (0.09–2.04)
        Not known5627
    Failures to ventilate on admission6/65 (9.2)2/31 (6.5)1.47 (0.28–7.76)1.36 (0.26–7.24)
        Not known4620
Early thermal care
    Admission temperature ≤36°C235 /320 (73.4)227/384 (59.1)1.91 (1.39–2.63)1.71 (1.21–2.43)
        Not known4611
Surfactant administration
    Not administered to intubated infants14/300 (4.7)10/303 (3.3)1.43 (0.63–3.28)1.66 (0.65–4.22)
    Not intubated on admission3787
        Not known295
    >1-h delay in administration117/308 (38.0)136/338 (40.2)0.91 (0.66–1.25)1.05 (0.74–1.48)
        Not known1216
Ventilatory support
    Poor effort to meet standard65/324 (20.1)28/378 (7.4)3.14 (1.96–5.03)3.29 (1.97–5.49)
        Not known4317
Cardiovascular support
    Poor effort to meet standard46/311 (14.8)23/348 (6.6)2.45 (1.45–4.15)2.37 (1.36–4.13)
        Not known5547
  • Data are n (%) unless otherwise stated; % was calculated from the number of infants for whom the information was provided.

  • * Adjusted for gender, birth weight ≤5th centile, and condition of infant at 5 minutes of age.