TABLE 3.

Comparison of Infants' Antenatal Risk Factors and Early Neonatal Characteristics Between Infants Who Died and Infants Who Survived

Infants Who Died, % (n = 366)Infants Who Survived, % (n = 395)P Value*
Ultrasonic evidence that infant was <5th centile102 (31.6)57 (16.1)<.001
    Not known4340
Evidence of fetal compromise185 (51.1)118 (30.5)<.001
    Not known48
Mode of delivery
    Spontaneous vaginal cephalic61 (16.7)108 (27.3).04
    Forceps (cephalic)6 (1.6)3 (0.8)
    Vaginal breech40 (10.9)33 (8.4)
    Cesarean section252 (70.2)248 (63.3)
    Not known73
If a Cesarean section was performed, was it
    Semi-elective/planned emergency84/252 (33.3)83/248 (33.5).002
    Unplanned emergency86/252 (34.1)115/248 (46.4)
    Immediate82/252 (32.5)50/248 (20.2)
Birth weight median, g (IQR)962.5 (761.5–1160.0)1040.0 (900.0–1180.0)<.001§
Proportion ≤5th centile49 (13.4)18 (4.6)<.001
Male gender234 (63.9)217 (54.9).01
Congenital malformation (non–life-threatening)30 (8.2)10 (2.5).001
Apgar score 1 min, median (IQR)5 (2–7)7 (5–8)<.001§
    Not known1613
Apgar score 5 min, median (IQR)8 (5–9)9 (8–9)<.001§
    Not known2416
Cord pH, median (IQR)7.26 (7.16–7.34)7.30 (7.21–7.35).006§
    Not known190209
Lowest temperature recorded within 12 h of birth median, °C (IQR)35.3 (34.6–36.0)35.8 (35.2–36.2)<.001§
    Not known5011
Lowest mean arterial blood pressure recorded within 12 h of birth median, mm Hg (IQR)26 (22–30)29 (25–32)<.001§
    Not known7951
CRIB score, median (IQR)8 (4–11)2 (1–6)<.001§
    Not known5658
No heart rate at birth31/352 (8.8)4/386 (1.0)<.001
No spontaneous respiratory activity at birth139/336 (41.4)68/368 (18.5)<.001
Absent or ineffective respiratory activity or persistent heart rate <100 beats/min at 1 min235/340 (69.1)160/363 (44.0)<.001
Absent or ineffective respiratory activity or persistent heart rate <100 beats/min at 5 min135/331 (40.8)59/361 (16.3)<.001
Heart rate <60 beats/min at any stage despite effective IPPV57/310 (18.4)14/368 (3.8)<.001
Absent or ineffective respiratory activity or persistent heart rate <100 beats/min on admission to the neonatal unit67/320 (20.9)31/375 (8.3)<.001
  • Data are n (%) unless otherwise stated. IPPV indicates intermittent positive pressure ventilation.

  • * χ2 test unless otherwise stated.

  • Evidence of fetal compromise: abnormal scan measurement >20 weeks' gestation, reduced liquor volume, abnormal artery Doppler indices and abnormal biophysical profile, cardiotocographic anomalies.

  • Test for trend.

  • § Mann-Whitney test. Distributions were skewed; hence, medians and IQRs are shown, and the Mann-Whitney test was used.