TABLE 1

Characteristics of Never Smokers at Baseline and Association With Exposure to Retail Tobacco Marketing

Characteristics at BaselinenValueShopping Frequency, visits/wkP
LowModerateHigh
Grade level, %1356.120
    650437.233.038.540.2
    741030.232.527.730.5
    844232.634.533.829.4
Male gender, %135444.242.243.446.8.355
Hispanic ethnicity, %134240.230.638.551.1<.001
Racial minority135146.046.448.243.2.317
Self-reported grades (mostly Bs or below), %135138.831.337.946.9<.001
Unsupervised after school (>2 d/wk), %134250.242.355.053.8<.001
Risk-taking propensity (4 = max), mean ± SD13552.4 ± 0.92.3 ± 0.92.5 ± 0.82.6 ± 1.0<.001
At least 1 parent/household smoker, %135338.027.339.747.1<.001
At least 1 friend smokes, %13549.78.29.211.7.180
Perceived exposure, mean ± SD
    See smoking in movies/television (4 = often)13522.8 ± 0.92.6 ± 0.92.9 ± 0.92.3 ± 1.0<.001
    See cigarette ads in stores (4 = often)13543.2 ± 0.83.1 ± 0.83.3 ± 0.83.4 ± 0.8<.001
Cigarette brand impressions/wk, mean ± SD1354324.7 ± 501.2113.9 ± 266.8226.9 ± 304.9633.4 ± 663.6<.001
  • P values derived from χ2 or analysis of variance. All proportions are column percentages unless otherwise noted. For example, 33% of students who reported low shopping frequency were sixth-graders.