TABLE 1

Population Characteristics and Weighted Percentage (SE) With Cotinine ≥0.05 ng/mL, Nonsmoking Youth Aged 3 to 19 Years, NHANES 1999–2006

CharacteristicSample SizeWeighted % (SE) of TotalWeighted % (SE) With Cotinine ≥0.05 ng/mLP
Total11 486100 (100)56.4% (1.8)
Smoke-free air law coverage
    No law736169.7 (4.2)64.6 (1.4)Referencea
    Limited11118.6 (2.8)b49.6 (4.4)<.001
    Extensive301421.7 (3.4)32.7 (3.5)<.001
Home SHS exposure
    Yes218820.9 (1.1)98.0 (0.5)Referencea
    No919379.1 (1.1)45.4 (1.7)<.001
Survey year
    1999–2000275421.6 (1.7)64.2 (3.5)Referencea
    2001–2002309527.8 (2.2)51.9 (4.0).03
    2003–2004282625.6 (1.5)61.8 (3.6).65
    2005–2006281125.1 (1.9)49.2 (2.5)<.001
Gender
    Male573951.6 (0.7)56.3 (1.9)Referencea
    Female574748.4 (0.7)56.5 (2.1).87
Age, y
    3–5158215.3 (0.4)63.2 (2.5)Referencea
    6–11357540.2 (0.8)57.3 (2.0)<.001
    12–15364326.0 (0.6)52.7 (1.9)<.001
    16–19268618.5 (0.8)54.1 (2.4)<.001
Race/ethnicity
    Non-Hispanic white288459.1 (1.8)55.1 (2.5)Referencea
    Non-Hispanic black361715.1 (1.2)78.0 (1.8)<.001
    Mexican American400713.1 (0.9)41.1 (2.4)<.001
    Other97812.7 (1.0)52.7 (2.9).47
Ratio of income to poverty
    Less than poverty threshold354823.1 (1.1)73.8 (2.6)Referencea
    More than poverty threshold719176.9 (1.1)51.0 (1.6)<.001
Region of the country
    West345726.0 (3.2)36.1 (4.0)Referencea
    Northeast153415.7 (1.3)62.9 (7.3).003
    South452436.4 (2.4)63.1 (1.8)<.001
    Midwest197122.0 (3.0)64.4 (1.9)<.001
No. of times eat in restaurant per week
    0–2659367.8 (1.1)54.9 (2.0)Referencea
    ≥3306732.2 (1.1)57.6 (2.0).09
  • a Reference category used to test the null hypothesis of no differences in percentage with cotinine ≥0.05 ng/mL by using the t test.

  • b Does not meet the standard of statistical reliability and precision (relative SE (SE/%) >30%).