TABLE 1

Observed (Weighted) Prevalence and Adjusted Odds of Children's Exposure to Secondhand Smoke in the Home by State and Selected Socioedemographic Characteristics: The 2007 National Survey of Child Health (N = 90 853)

CovariateCrude PrevalenceUnadjustedAdjustedaAdjusted Prevalencea
%SEOR95% CIOR95% CI%SE
United States7.580.19
State of residenceb
    Alabama11.391.2211.885.67–24.917.173.50–14.697.980.87
    Alaska4.750.714.612.14–9.912.581.20–5.523.200.53
    Arizona3.550.633.401.55–7.473.711.72–8.024.480.79
    Arkansas10.960.9411.385.51–23.526.653.29–13.437.490.67
    California1.900.581.800.71–4.542.721.10–6.753.371.00
    Colorado4.380.834.241.90–9.434.512.07–9.835.330.98
    Connecticut4.780.694.642.17–9.925.672.71–11.876.530.91
    Delaware10.611.1110.985.25–22.949.684.76–19.6910.241.00
    District of Columbia13.711.1914.697.09–30.429.634.72–19.6510.200.99
    Florida4.230.914.081.78–9.333.641.62–8.194.400.93
    Georgia7.411.177.403.40–16.095.352.51–11.416.210.97
    Hawaii4.600.764.452.04–9.715.172.38–11.236.021.04
    Idaho3.350.533.211.48–6.932.060.97–4.392.590.43
    Illinois8.320.868.394.02–17.508.574.21–17.429.270.91
    Indiana11.841.2012.415.95–25.918.744.30–17.739.410.92
    Iowa10.151.2110.444.94–22.058.133.94–16.778.871.03
    Kansas9.481.059.684.62–20.297.733.78–15.808.500.90
    Kentucky17.611.1719.779.64–40.5511.655.81–23.3611.870.87
    Louisiana10.851.2011.255.36–23.626.803.31–13.957.630.86
    Maine6.660.896.603.10–14.053.601.71–7.594.350.64
    Maryland7.250.897.233.42–15.267.503.62–15.538.291.01
    Massachusetts4.300.724.161.91–9.064.642.17–9.925.470.90
    Michigan10.401.1510.735.11–22.527.803.80–16.038.570.96
    Minnesota4.900.814.762.19–10.384.241.99–9.065.050.83
    Mississippi13.771.1614.777.14–30.537.073.48–14.407.890.75
    Missouri13.411.2214.316.89–29.719.954.92–20.1110.470.94
    Montana5.350.605.222.50–10.922.691.30–5.573.330.43
    Nebraska7.400.927.393.50–15.635.772.80–11.896.620.81
    Nevada4.940.894.802.17–10.626.042.80–13.016.891.16
    New Hampshire6.560.776.493.09–13.656.163.01–12.627.020.81
    New Jersey5.110.864.982.28–10.896.272.94–13.377.121.11
    New Mexico4.050.553.911.84–8.303.461.64–7.274.190.62
    New York7.940.947.983.79–16.807.973.87–16.418.731.01
    North Carolina11.311.2311.795.62–24.728.484.13–17.409.190.98
    North Dakota6.040.695.942.84–12.453.581.72–7.424.330.56
    Ohio16.381.4718.118.71–37.6412.476.17–25.1912.521.08
    Oklahoma14.461.2315.637.55–32.359.924.91–20.0510.440.91
    Oregon2.600.482.461.11–5.451.980.91–4.302.500.47
    Pennsylvania13.641.3114.607.01–30.4211.535.69–23.3611.771.07
    Rhode Island5.730.885.612.60–12.145.752.73–12.116.610.97
    South Carolina9.520.949.734.68–20.255.682.78–11.616.540.69
    South Dakota8.090.958.133.86–17.134.892.36–10.175.730.74
    Tennessee13.211.2214.076.77–29.228.824.35–17.879.490.88
    Texas5.610.945.502.51–12.026.713.13–14.407.551.21
    Utah1.070.381.00Reference1.00Reference1.300.43
    Vermont6.641.016.583.05–14.203.911.83–8.344.690.75
    Virginia8.570.988.664.12–18.217.733.77–15.868.510.94
    Washington2.680.672.541.07–6.032.361.01–5.522.950.73
    West Virginia17.901.2520.169.81–41.4311.815.90–23.6612.000.89
    Wisconsin11.581.0912.115.83–25.169.954.92–20.1510.470.96
    Wyoming8.871.009.004.29–18.906.022.90–12.496.870.85
Child's age, yb
    0–54.850.291.00Reference1.00Reference5.220.30
    6–87.060.471.491.24–1.791.421.17–1.717.060.43
    9–117.670.461.631.37–1.951.491.24–1.807.390.43
    12–149.270.502.011.69–2.381.901.59–2.269.010.47
    15–1711.620.572.582.19–3.042.412.02–2.8710.900.50
Gender
    Male7.630.281.010.91–1.131.020.91–1.157.650.27
    Female7.530.271.00Reference1.00Reference7.510.26
Race/ethnicityb
    Non-Hispanic white7.980.263.222.64–3.932.171.61–2.928.200.34
    Non-Hispanic black13.580.725.834.67–7.292.071.53–2.807.880.48
    Hispanic2.620.241.00Reference1.00Reference4.180.48
    American Indian11.201.874.693.10–7.082.021.27–3.217.721.28
    Asian1.550.430.580.33–1.041.060.56–1.984.391.14
    Hawaiian/Pacific Islander1.080.370.410.20–0.820.340.16–0.721.530.54
    Non-Hispanic mixed race10.791.134.493.34–6.052.641.84–3.809.630.99
    Other8.602.333.491.90–6.432.251.20–4.208.452.04
Household compositionb
    Two-parent biological4.540.171.00Reference1.00Reference5.810.23
    Two-parent step-family14.600.953.593.04–4.252.221.87–2.6411.350.70
    Single mother13.440.633.262.87–3.721.661.41–1.958.950.48
    Other family type14.681.133.622.98–4.382.041.63–2.5610.610.88
Place of residenceb
    Metropolitan6.590.201.00Reference1.00Reference7.200.21
    Nonmetropolitan12.690.572.061.83–2.321.291.11–1.518.910.51
Primary language spoken at homeb
    English8.540.226.974.83–10.044.112.61–6.488.080.22
    Any other language1.320.241.00Reference1.00Reference2.270.48
Household poverty status (ratio of family income to FPL)b
    <100%13.850.626.745.68–7.997.336.00–8.9714.540.71
    100%–199%10.840.555.094.21–6.154.974.07–6.0610.630.52
    200%–399%6.590.332.962.48–3.532.702.26–3.226.270.32
    ≥400%2.330.161.00Reference1.00Reference2.490.18
Highest household or parental education level, yb
    <1212.010.877.345.93–9.0910.648.35–13.5516.441.15
    1213.820.578.637.29–10.217.676.41–9.1812.690.52
    13–159.980.435.975.04–7.065.144.32–6.109.050.39
    ≥161.820.131.00Reference1.00Reference1.980.14
  • OR indicates odds ratio; CI, confidence interval.

  • a Adjusted by multivariate logistic regression for state of residence, child's age, gender, race/ethnicity, primary language spoken at home, household composition, metropolitan/nonmetropolitan residence, and household poverty status or household education.

  • b The χ2 test for the overall association between the covariate and exposure to secondhand smoke was statistically significant at P < .01.