Demographic Characteristics of the NLLFS Sample and the Achenbach Normative CBCL Sample

Adolescent sample sizeN = 78bN = 93
Adolescent gender, %
Adolescent age, mean ± SD, yc17.05 ± 0.3617.00 ± 0.00
Parental SES, %d,e
    Upper middle and upper24.743.9
Parental race/ethnicity, %f,g
    Black/African American3.014.0
    Native American2.0d
    Asian/Pacific Islander1.0d
    Mixed or other5.4
Family region of residence (US), %h
CBCL respondent, %
  • SES indicates socioeconomic status.

  • a Achenbach and Rescorla 17-year-old raw data, 2001, courtesy of Dr Thomas Achenbach, University of Vermont.39

  • b N = 78 index offspring including 1 set of twins (77 families) at T5.

  • c NLLFS adolescent age range: 3 were 16 years old, 68 were 17 years old, and 7 were 18 years old.

  • d NLLFS parental demographic data collected T1 to T3.21,,23

  • e SES for NLLFS and Achenbach samples based on Hollingshead Index by using the parent with the highest occupation and education.21,,23,39

  • f Achenbach race/ethnicity data combine Native American, Asian/Pacific Islander, and other.

  • g Based on NLLFS race/ethnicity data for all mothers in 84 families at T121; the 77 mothers who completed the T5 CBCL = 96% white/Caucasian; race/ethnicity for the 78 NLLFS adolescents = white/Caucasian 87.1%, black/African American 2.6%, Native American 1.3%, Latina/o 3.8%, Asian/Pacific Islander 2.6%, and Middle Eastern 2.6%.

  • h Between T3 and T5, the NLLFS families resided in large urban communities, midsized towns, and rural areas of California, Georgia, Louisiana, Massachusetts, Maryland, Minnesota, New York, Oregon, South Carolina, Texas, Vermont, Virginia, and Wisconsin; Achenbach residential data were derived from total normative CBCL 6–18 sample.

  • i The Achenbach mothers' CBCL reports were used for comparison with the T5 NLLFS mother reports.