Cumulative Hardship Category and Study Outcomes (N = 7141)

OutcomesAOR (95% CI)
Severe vs No HardshipSevere vs Moderate HardshipModerate vs No Hardship
Well child0.65 (0.51–0.83)0.74 (0.50–0.93)0.89 (0.79–0.99)
Hospitalizations1.18 (0.92–1.51)1.24 (0.98–1.57)0.95 (0.84–1.07)
At developmental risk on PEDS2.20 (1.66–2.93)1.80 (1.38–2.34)1.21 (1.03–1.42)
Child health fair or poor1.77 (1.30–2.41)1.60 (1.20–2.13)1.10 (0.92–1.30)
At risk of underweighta0.90 (0.64–1.25)1.03 (0.75–1.42)0.88 (0.76–1.02)
Overweightb1.15 (0.86–1.54)0.95 (0.72–1.26)1.20 (1.04–1.38)
  • Sample size reflects those without missing data for hospitalizations, at risk of underweight, overweight, child health, and PEDs as all these variables make up the well-child outcome. Private insurance has been excluded in all analysis and children are >4 months of age. Adjusted for site, race/ethnicity, us born mother vs. immigrant, marital status, education, child gender, child's age, mother's age, caregiver employment, breastfeeding, LBW, maternal depression, and number of children ≤17 years in the household.

  • a At risk of underweight was defined as weight for age of <5th percentile or weight for height of <10th percentile.

  • b Overweight was defined as weight for length of >95th percentile for children <24 months of age and BMI for age of ≥85th percentile for children ≥24 months of age. If length data were not available (25.6% of sample), then weight for age of =95th percentile was used as a proxy measure.