TABLE 3

Cumulative Hardship Category and Study Outcomes (N = 7141)

OutcomesAOR (95% CI)
Severe vs No HardshipSevere vs Moderate HardshipModerate vs No Hardship
Well child0.65 (0.51–0.83)0.74 (0.50–0.93)0.89 (0.79–0.99)
    P<.001.01.03
Hospitalizations1.18 (0.92–1.51)1.24 (0.98–1.57)0.95 (0.84–1.07)
    P.21.08.37
At developmental risk on PEDS2.20 (1.66–2.93)1.80 (1.38–2.34)1.21 (1.03–1.42)
    P<.0001<.0001.02
Child health fair or poor1.77 (1.30–2.41)1.60 (1.20–2.13)1.10 (0.92–1.30)
    P<.001.002.29
At risk of underweighta0.90 (0.64–1.25)1.03 (0.75–1.42)0.88 (0.76–1.02)
    P.51.86.10
Overweightb1.15 (0.86–1.54)0.95 (0.72–1.26)1.20 (1.04–1.38)
    P.36.73.01
  • Sample size reflects those without missing data for hospitalizations, at risk of underweight, overweight, child health, and PEDs as all these variables make up the well-child outcome. Private insurance has been excluded in all analysis and children are >4 months of age. Adjusted for site, race/ethnicity, us born mother vs. immigrant, marital status, education, child gender, child's age, mother's age, caregiver employment, breastfeeding, LBW, maternal depression, and number of children ≤17 years in the household.

  • a At risk of underweight was defined as weight for age of <5th percentile or weight for height of <10th percentile.

  • b Overweight was defined as weight for length of >95th percentile for children <24 months of age and BMI for age of ≥85th percentile for children ≥24 months of age. If length data were not available (25.6% of sample), then weight for age of =95th percentile was used as a proxy measure.