TABLE 2

Bivariate Prevalence of Health Outcomes According to Cumulative Hardship Status

Outcomesn (%)
No Hardship (N = 2640)Moderate Hardship (N = 4075)Severe Hardship (N = 426)χ2P
Well child1209 (46)1712 (42)148 (35)<.0001
Child health fair or poor281 (11)516 (13)79 (19)<.0001
Hospitalizations723 (27)1112 (27)140 (33).05
At risk of underweighta423 (16)577 (14)59 (14).09
Overweightb423 (16)746 (18)79 (19).05
At developmental risk on PEDS331 (13)616 (15)102 (24)<.0001
  • Private insurance was excluded in all analysis, and children were ≥4 months of age.

  • a At risk of underweight was defined as weight for age of <5th percentile or weight for height of <10th percentile.

  • b Overweight was defined as weight for length of >95th percentile for children <24 months of age and BMI for age of ≥85th percentile for children ≥24 months of age. If length data were not available (25.6% of sample), then weight for age of ≥95th percentile was used as a proxy measure.