TABLE 1

Sample Characteristics According to Level of Cumulative Hardship for Infants and Toddlers of >4 Months (N = 7141)

No HardshipModerate HardshipSevere HardshipP
N (%)2640 (37)4075 (57)426 (6)
Site, n (%)<.0001
    Baltimore, MD604 (44)720 (52)50 (4)
    Boston, MA651 (39)911 (55)109 (7)
    Little Rock, AR516 (37)805 (58)70 (5)
    Minneapolis, MN271 (23)798 (67)115 (10)
    Philadelphia, PA598 (39)841 (55)82 (5)
Child's gender, n (%).26
    Male1422 (38)2120 (56)232 (6)
    Female1218 (36)1955 (58)194 (6)
Mother's race/ethnicity, n (%)<.0001
    Asian27 (38)43 (60)2 (3)
    Black1568 (39)2257 (56)232 (6)
    Hispanic580 (31)1169 (62)137 (7)
    White446 (43)556 (53)45 (4)
    Native American11 (20)36 (67)7 (13)
Mother's nativity, n (%)<.0001
    Born in United States2033 (39)2893 (56)269 (5)
    Immigrant605 (31)1181 (61)157 (8)
Mother's marital status, n (%)<.0001
    Married775 (41)987 (52)122 (6)
    Not married1855 (35)3080 (59)303 (6)
Mother's education, n (%)<.0001
    Some high school658 (30)1363 (63)141 (7)
    High school graduate1164 (38)1710 (56)173 (6)
    College graduate809 (43)978 (52)106 (6)
Caregiver employed, n (%)<.0001
    Yes1362 (42)1705 (53)155 (5)
    No1275 (33)2362 (60)270 (7)
Caregiver's depressive symptoms, n (%)<.0001
    Yes428 (25)1087 (64)186 (11)
    No2053 (41)2785 (55)213 (4)
Mother's age, mean ± SD, y26.3 ± 6.125.5 ± 6.026.9 ± 6.4<.05
Child's age, mean ± SD, mo16.3 ± 8.915.7 ± 8.916.1 ± 8.8.01a
Child breastfed, n (%)<.0001
    Yes1213 (34)2088 (59)253 (7)
    No1418 (40)1974 (55)171 (5)
Child's birth weight, n (%).35
    Low389 (37)598 (58)51 (5)
    Normal2188 (37)3358 (57)357 (6)
No. of children ≤17 y of age, mean ± SD2.1 ± 1.12.5 ± 1.62.7 ± 1.5<.0001
  • a Significant difference in child's age between no hardship and moderate hardship.