TABLE 3

ORs of CP and Other Family Characteristics Predicting Higher Levels of Child Aggression at Age 5

Model 1 (N = 2461)Model 2 (N = 2461)Model 3 (N = 2432)Model 4 (N = 2432)
OR (95% CI)POR (95% CI)POR (95% CI)POR (95% CI)P
Mother's use of CP
    Mother spanked >2 times2.03 (1.82–2.26)<.00011.59 (1.42–1.79)<.00011.43 (1.22–1.69)<.00011.49 (1.24–1.78)<.0001
    Mother spanked 1 or 2 times1.37 (1.17–1.61)<.00011.21 (1.02–1.45).0321.15 (0.93–1.40)NS1.17 (0.94–1.44)NS
Higher level of child aggression at age 33.79 (3.43–4.19)<.00013.34 (3.05–3.66)<.00013.35 (3.06–3.67)<.0001
Maternal parenting risks
    Psychological maltreatment of child0.98 (0.81–1.18)NS0.97 (0.80–1.19)NS
    Physical maltreatment of child (spanking not included)1.11 (0.95–1.28)NS1.10 (0.93–1.29)NS
    Neglect of child1.14 (0.84–1.55)NS1.13 (0.83–1.53)NS
    Victim of intimate partner aggression and/or violence1.14 (0.94–1.38)NS1.15 (0.94–1.39)NS
    Parenting stress1.02 (1.01–1.04).0011.02 (1.01–1.04).006
    Major depression1.07 (0.91–1.26)NS1.07 (0.92–1.25)NS
    Use of drugs and/or alcohol1.14 (0.87–1.50)NS1.15 (0.88–1.51)NS
    Considered aborting this child1.04 (0.79–1.37)NS1.04 (0.77–1.40)NS
Demographic features
    Male child1.31 (1.09–1.58).004
    Mother's age1.00 (0.97–1.03)NS
    Mother's education
        Less than high school (reference)1.00
        High school0.97 (0.80–1.19)NS
        Some college0.78 (0.65–0.94).009
        College graduate0.66 (0.44–0.99).043
    Mother's race/ethnicity
        Black (reference)1.00
        Hispanic0.99 (0.80–1.22)NS
        White1.07 (0.85–1.34)NS
        Other1.13 (0.72–1.80)NS
    Mother foreign-born1.04 (0.77–1.41)NS
    Mother's religion
        Protestant (reference)1.00
        Catholic1.10 (0.75–1.60)NS
        Other Christian0.99 (0.64–1.55)NS
        No religious preference1.24 (1.02–1.50).030
        Other1.32 (0.77–2.26)NS
    Mother-father relationship status
        Married (reference)1.00
        Cohabiting0.99 (0.70–1.39)NS
        Visiting1.18 (0.89–1.56)NS
        No relationship1.00 (0.65–1.54)NS
    Mother's annual household income0.96 (0.90–1.04)NS
  • OR indicates odds ratio; CI, confidence interval.

  • Missing data for each variable equaled ≤1.2%. All models were adjusted for 2 key variables used in the sampling design, that is, parents' marital status at time of index child’s birth (married or unmarried) and city. In model 4, a Bonferroni correction for multiple tests suggested that only findings with P < .002 should be considered.